Stratasys Platinum Partner Status Achieved by PADT

  Stratasys_PLAT_Partner_2015

A lot is going on in the various sales groups at PADT after having such a strong 2014.   We are very pleased to announce that the latest result of outstanding efforts across the board is PADT's new status as a Stratasys Platinum Commercial Partner. Stratasys, Ltd (SSYS), the leading provider of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) systems, designates only the best of their reseller channel as Platinum Partners. To obtain this highest level, PADT not only had to meet aggressive sales goals, we also had to make significant investments in resources and people.  In 2014 we exceeded those sales goals by 25% and we opened up a fourth sales and support office, located just south of Salt Lake City in Murray, Utah. 

Here is a pixture of our Additive Manufacturing Sales Manager, Mario Vargas, with one of PADT's principals, Ward Rand, pointing out our latest addition to our "wall o' awards."

  PADT-Stratasys-Platinum-Partner-Award-2015

You can read more about this on our press release here.

PADT has been selling Stratasys equipment for over a decade, and we have been using their systems for over fifteen years.  We have seen them go from a few basic systems to a full offering of solutions from desktop hobby solutions to full production manufacturing centers. This year the team was able to help more customers find the right Additive Manufacturing system for their specific needs. In fact, many of the systems we sold in 2015 were additional machines or upgrades to current machines, showing strong customer satisfaction with Stratasys solutions. 

connex3_with_cmy_helmets     400mc_solo  

We could never have achieved last years success and Platinum status without a fantastic team. Our sales professionals, application engineers, field service engineers, and support staff all strive to provide the highly technical win-win sales experience that PADT has become known for. They truly believe in this technology and are truly enthusiastic about finding new and better ways for our customers to apply it.

Those customers also deserve a heartfelt thank you for being such a pleasure to work with.  Every day we get to interact with the full spectrum of users, from the preverbal garage startup to major aerospace corporations; and everything between.  They teach us something new every day and we are always proud of the value that Stratasys and PADT are able to deliver to their product development efforts. 

If you want to learn more about 3D Printing and why Stratasys systems have continued to outsell the closest competitors for years, please contact Kathryn Pesta at 480.813.4884 or kathryn.pesta@padtinc.com.  She will put you in touch with one of our sales people located in your local area.  Or you can visit www.padtinc.com/stratasys to learn more about the technology. 

 

Using Bright CM to Manage a Linux Cluster

COD_Cluster-Bright-1What goes into managing a Linux HPC (High Performance Computing) cluster?

There is an endless list of software, tools and configurations that are required or recommended for efficiently managing a shared HPC cluster environment.

A shared HPC cluster typically has many layers that deliver a usable environment that doesn’t have to  depend on the users coordinating closely or the system administrators being superheroes of late-night patching and just-in-time recovery.

bright-f1

Figure 1 Typical Layers of a shared HPC cluster.

For each layer in the diagram above there are numerous open-source and paid software tools to choose from. The thing to note is that it’s not just a choice. System administrators have to work with the user requirements, compatibility tweaks and ease of implementation and use to come up with a perfect recipe (much like carrot cake). Once the choices have been made, users and system administrators have to train, learn and start utilizing these tools.

HPC @ PADT Inc.

At PADT Inc. we have several Linux based HPC clusters that are in high demand. Our Clusters are based on the Cube High Value Performance Computing (HVPC) systems and are designed to optimize the performance of numerical simulation software. We were facing several challenges that are common with building & maintaining HPC clusters. The challenges were mainly in the areas of security, imaging and deployment, resource management, monitoring and maintenance.

To solve these challenges there is an endless list of software tools and packages both open-source and commercial. Each one of these tools comes with its own steep learning curve and mounting time to test & implement.

Enter – Bright Computing

After testing several tools we came across the Bright Computing – Bright Cluster Manager (Bright CM). Bright CM eliminates the need for system administrators to manually install and configure the most common HPC cluster components. On top of that it provides the majority of the HPC software packages, tools and software libraries in their default software image.

A Bright CM cluster installation starts off with an extremely useful installation wizard that asks all of the right questions while giving the user full control to customize the installation. With a note pad, a couple of hours and a basic understanding of HPC clusters, you are ready to install your applications.

bright-f2

Figure 2. Installation Wizard

An all knowing dashboard helps system admins master and monitor the cluster(s) or if you prefer the CLI CM shell provides full functionality through command line. From the dashboard system admins can manage multiple clusters down to the finest details.

bright-f3

Figure 3. Cluster Management Interface.

An extensive cluster monitoring interface allows systems admins, users and key stakeholders to generate and view detailed reports about the different cluster components.

bright-f4

Figure 4. Cluster Monitoring Interface.

Bright CM has proven to be a valuable tool in managing and optimizing our HPC environment. For further information and a demo of Bright Cluster Manager please contact sales@padtinc.com.

10 Useful New Features in ANSYS Mechanical 16.0

ansys-mechanical-16-heade2r

PADT is excited about the plethora of new features in release 16.0 of ANSYS products.  After sorting through the list of new features in Mechanical, here are 10 enhancements that we found to be particularly useful for general applications.


1: Mesh Display Style

This new option in the details view for the mesh branch makes it easy to visualize mesh quality items such as aspect ratio, skewness, element quality, etc.  The default style is body color, but it can be changed in the details to element quality, for example, as shown here:

ansys-mechanical-16-f1a

Figure 1. A. – Mesh Display Style Set to Element Quality

figure1b

Figure 1. B. – Element Quality Plot After Additional Mesh Settings

ansys-mechanical-16-f1c

Figure 1. C. – Accessing Display Style in the Mesh Details


2: Image to Clipboard

How many times have you either done a print screen > paste into editing tool > crop or done an image to file to get the plots you need into tools such as Word and PowerPoint?  The new Image to Clipboard menu pick streamlines this process.  Now, just get the image the way you want it in the geometry view, right click, and select Image to Clipboard.  Or just use Ctrl + C.  When you paste, you’ll be pasting the contents of that view window directly.  Here’s what it looks like:

ansys-mechanical-16-f2

Figure 2 – Right Click, Image to Clip Board


3: Beam Contact Formulation

This was a beta feature at 15.0, but if you didn’t get a chance to try it out, it’s now fully supported at 16.0.  The idea here is that instead of the ‘traditional’ bonded contact methods (using the augmented Lagrange or pure penalty formulation) or the Multi-Point Constraint (MPC) bonded option, we now have a new choice of beam contact.  This option utilizes internally-created massless linear beam elements to connect the two sides of a contact interface together.  This can be more efficient than the traditional formulations and can avoid the over constraints that can happen if multiple contact regions utilizing the MPC option end up generating constraint equations that tend to conflict with each other.

ansys-mechanical-16-f3

Figure 3 – Beam Formulation for Bonded Contact


4: Nonlinear Adaptive Region

If you have ever been frustrated by the error message in the Solution Information window that says, “Element xyz … has become highly distorted…”, version 16.0 adds a new tool to our toolbox with the Nonlinear Adaptive Region capability.  This capability is in its infancy stage at 16.0, but in the right circumstances it allows the solution to recover from highly distorted elements by pausing, remeshing, and then continuing.  We plan on publishing more details on this capability soon, but for now please know that it exists and more can learned in the 16.0 Mechanical Help.  There are a lot of restrictions on when it can work, but a big one is that it only works for elements that become overly deformed due to large and nonuniform deformation, meaning not due to unstable materials, numerical instabilities, or structures that are unstable due to buckling effects.

As shown in figure 4. A., a Nonlinear Adaptive Region can be inserted under the Solution branch.  It is scoped to bodies.  Options and controls are set in the details view.

ansys-mechanical-16-f4a

Figure 4. A. – Nonlinear Adaptive Region

If the solver encounters a ‘qualifying event’ that triggers a remesh, the solver output will inform us like this:

 

**** REGENERATE MESH AT SUBSTEP     5 OF LOAD STEP      1 BECAUSE OF
      NONLINEAR ADAPTIVE CRITERIA

 

 

 

 

AmsMesher(ANSYS Mechanical Solver Mesher),Graph based ANSYS Meshing EXtension,v0.96.03b
(c)ANSYS,Inc. v160-20141009
  Platform           :  Windows 7 6.1.7601
  Arguments          :  F:\Program Files\ANSYS Inc\v160\ANSYS\bin\winx64\AnsMechSolverMesh.exe
                     :  -m
                     :  G:\Testing\16.0\_ProjectScratch\Scr692\file_inpRzn_0001.cdb
                     :  –slayers=2
                     :  –silent=0
                     :  –aconcave=15.0000
                     :  –aconvex=15.0000
                     :  –gszratio=1.0000
  Seed elements      :  _RZNDISTEL block

– 17:6:17 2015-2-11

  ===================================================================
  == Mesh quality metrics comparison                                
  ===================================================================
  Element Average    :  ——–Source——–+——–Target——–
  ..Skewness(Volume) :    4.0450e-001             4.1063e-001        
  ..Aspect Ratio     :    2.3411e+000             2.4331e+000        
  Domain Volume      :    8.6109e-003             8.6345e-003        

  Worst Element      :  ——–Source——–+——–Target——–
  ..Skewness(Volume) :    0.8564  (e552     )      0.7487  (e2217    )   
  ..Aspect Ratio     :    4.9731  (e434     )      6.8070  (e2236    )   

  ===================================================================
  == Remeshing result statistics                                    
  ===================================================================
  Domain(s)          :   1      
  Region(s)          :   1      
  Patche(s)          :   7      
  nNode[New]         :   39      
  nElem[New/Eff/Src] :   79 / 92 / 2076      

  Peak memory        :   10 MB

– 17:6:17 2015-2-11
– AmsMesher run completed in 0.225 seconds

  ========================= End Run =================================
  ===================================================================

 **** NEW MESH HAS BEEN CREATED SUCCESSFULLY. CONTINUE TO SOLVE. 

Results item tabular listings will show that a remesh has occurred, as shown in figure 4. B.

ansys-mechanical-16-f4b

Figure 4. B. – Results Table Indicating a Remesh Occurred in the Nonlinear Adaptive Region

ansys-mechanical-16-f4c

Figure 4. C. – Before and After Remesh Due to Nonlinear Adaptive Region


5: Thermal Fluid Flow via Thermal ‘Pipes’

This has also been a beta option in prior releases, but nicely, at 16.0 it becomes a production feature.  The idea here is that we can use the ANSYS Mechanical APDL FLUID116 elements in Mechanical, without needing a command object.  These fluid elements have temperature as their degree of freedom in this case, and enable the effects of one dimensional fluid flow.  This means we have a reduced order model for capturing heat transfer due to a fluid moving through some kind of cavity without having to explicitly model that cavity.  The pipe ‘path’ is specified using a line body.

The line body gets defined with a cross section in CAD, and is tagged as a named selection in Mechanical.  This thermal pipe can then interact on appropriate surfaces in your model via a convection load.  Once the convection load is applied on appropriate surfaces in your model, the Fluid Flow option can then be set to Yes, and the line body is specified as the appropriate named selection.  Appropriate BC’s need to be applied to the line body, such as temperature constraints and mass flow rate, as shown in figure 5.

ansys-mechanical-16-f5

Figure 5 – Thermal “Pipe” Line Body at Top, Showing Applied Boundary Conditions


6: Solver Pivot Checking Control

This new option under Analysis Settings > Solver Controls allows you to potentially continue an analysis that has stopped due to pivoting issues, meaning a model that’s not fully constrained or one that is having trouble due to contact pairs not being fully in contact. 

The options are Program Controlled, Warning, Error, and Off.  The Warning setting is the one to use if you want the solver to continue after any pivoting issues have occurred.  The Error setting means that the solver will stop if pivoting issues occur.  The Off setting results in no pivot checking to occur, while Program Controlled, which is the default, means that the solver will decide.

ansys-mechanical-16-f6

Figure 6 – Solver Pivot Checking Controls Under Analysis Settings


7: Contact Result Trackers

This new feature allows you to more closely track contact status data while the solution is running, or after it has completed.  This capability uses the .cnd file that is created during the solution in the solver directory.  It is useful because it gives you more information on the behavior of your contact regions during solution so you can have more confidence that things are progressing well or potentially stop the solution and take corrective action if they are not.  The tracker objects get inserted under the Solution Information branch, as shown in figure 7. A.

ansys-mechanical-16-f7a

Figure 7. A. – Contact Trackers Inserted Under Solution Information

A large variety of quantities can be selected to track, such as Number Contacting, Number Sticking, Gap, Penetration, etc.

ansys-mechanical-16-f7b

Figure 7. B. – Contact Results Tracker Settings in the Details View

Contact results tracker quantities can be viewed in real time during the solution, as shown in figure 7. C.

ansys-mechanical-16-f7c

Figure 7. C. – Contact Results Tracker Showing Gap Decreasing as the Solution Progresses


8: Tree Filtering

For large assemblies or other complex models, there are useful enhancements in how the tree can be filtered, including the ability to create Groups.  Groups can consist of tree entities that are geometry, coordinate systems, connection features, boundary conditions, or even results.  Grouping is accomplished as easily as selecting the desired items in the tree, then right clicking to specify Group, as shown in Figure 8. A.

ansys-mechanical-16-f8a

Figure 8. A. – Grouping Displacements

A new folder in the tree is then created which can be named something useful.  Figure 8. B. shows the displacement boundary condition group (folder) after it was given a name.

ansys-mechanical-16-f8b

Figure 8. B. – Group of Displacement BC’s, Given a Meaningful Name

It’s easy to right click and Ungroup if needed, and there is also a Group Similar Objects option which allows you to select just one item in the tree and easily group all similar items by right clicking.


9: Results Set Listing Enhancements

In addition to the information on remeshing that we mentioned back in useful new feature number 4, there is a new capability to right click in the tabular listing of results and then right click to create total deformation or equivalent stress results.  This capability can make it faster to create a deformation or stress plot for a particular time point or result set of interest.

The procedure to do this is:

  • Left click on the Solution branch in the tree.
  • Left click on the desired Results set in Tabular Data
  • Right click on that results set and select Create Total Deformation Results or Create Equivalent Stress Results, as shown in figure 9.

The result of these steps will be a new result item in the tree, waiting for you to evaluate so you can see the new results plot.

ansys-mechanical-16-f9

Figure 9 – Right Click in Solution Tabular Data to Create Deformation or Equivalent Stress Result Items


10: Explode View

We’ve saved a fun one for last, the new Explode View capability.  This allows you to incrementally ‘explode’ the view of your assemblies, making it potentially easier to visualize the parts and interaction between parts that make up the assembly.  To use this feature, make sure the Explode View Options toolbar is turned on in your View settings.  There are several options for the ‘explosion center’, such as the assembly center or the global or a user defined coordinate system.

ansys-mechanical-16-f10a 

Figure 10. A. – The Explode View Options Toolbar

As you can see in figure 10. A., there is a slider that allows you to control the ‘level’ of view explosion.  Keep in mind this is just a visual tool and does nothing to the coordinates of the parts in your assemblies.

Figures 10. B. and 10. C. show various slider settings for the exploded view of an assembly.

ansys-mechanical-16-f10b

Figure 10. B. – Explode View Level 3

ansys-mechanical-16-f10c

Figure 10. C. – Explode View Level 4


This concludes our tour of 10 useful new features in ANSYS Mechanical 16.0.  We hope you find this information helps you get your ANSYS Mechanical simulations completed more efficiently.  There are lots and lots of other new features that we didn’t mention here.  The Release Notes in the Help covers a lot of them.  We’ll be writing more about some of the things we mentioned here as well as some of the other new features soon.  

PADT’s ANSYS Sales Team Celebrates Sales Record for 2014

2014 was both a challenging and rewarding year at PADT. One area of the company that achieved success last year was the ANSYS Sales team.  Lead by Bob Calvin, our account  managers Oren Raz and Patrick Barnett worked with the support of our technical team  throughout the year to help our customers find the right solution for their simulation needs. All that hard work resulted in a record year of sales for ANSYS products by PADT.

A big "Thank You" needs to go out to all of our fantastic customers who make selling and supporting this tool such a pleasure. Our success is a direct result of the success that they are having in the application of ANSYS, Inc. technology to improve their products and their product development process. I know that sounds kind of "salesy" but it is true.  We keep selling more of this stuff for one simple reason, it works. 

And making it work is also the job of our technical support team, our engineers who serve as application engineers, and the business support staff that takes care of the details. 

 This week we were lucky to have Bob Thibeault, the new ANSYS Director North America Channel, and Clark Cox, the ANSYS Channel Account Manager, visit Phoenix and we were able to get a picture with them as we placed our 6th annual sales achievement medal on our "wall o' awards."

PADT-2014-ANSYS-Sales-Achievement-Award
2014 Accomplished – Putting the medal on the wall
(L to R) Clark Cox, Bob Thibeault, Ward Rand, Eric Miller, Bob Calvin

Things are already off to a great start for 2015 and we hope to be working with even more customers as we help them explore new and profitable ways to apply this technology. 

Quick Tip: Concatenating Text Files Using ANSYS Mechanical APDL

So you have text output from some ANSYS analysis and you wish you could just do this:

cat lift.txt  cop.txt drag.txt >> results.txt

and you are writing an ANSYS macro and want it to run on all platforms.  The following macro will use APDL commands to join the files together. 

macro1.mac

/inquire,linesin1,lines,lift,txt

*sread,str1array,lift,txt,,80,,linesin1

/inquire,linesin2,lines,cop,txt

*sread,str2array,cop,txt,,80,,linesin2

/inquire,linesin3,lines,drag,txt

*sread,str3array,drag,txt,,80,,linesin3

*cfopen,results,txt

*vlen,linesin1

*vwrite,str1array(1)

%80S

*vlen,linesin2

*vwrite,str2array(1)

%80S

*vlen,linesin3

*vwrite,str3array(1)

%80S

*cfclose

Bonus: If you want to strip some lines off of the top or read less than all the lines, you can pass additional arguments to *sread:

/inquire,linesin1,lines,lift,txt

Lines_skip=5

Lines_read=linesin1-lines_skip

*sread,str1array,lift,txt,,80,lines_skip,lines_read

 

Seminar Info: Designing and Simulating Products for 3D Printing

Note: We have scheduled an encore Lunch & Learn and companion Webinar for March 23, 2015.  Please register here to attend in person at CEI in Phoenix or here to attend via the web.

ds43dp-1People are interested in how to better do design and simulation for products they manufacture using 3D Printing.  When the AZ Tech council let us know they had a cancelation for their monthly manufacturing Lunch and Learn, we figured why not do something on this topic, a few people might show up. We had over 105 people register, so we had to close registration. In the end around 95 total people made it to the seminar, which is more than expected so we had to add chairs. Who would have thought that many people would come for such a nerdy topic?.

For an hour and fifteen minutes they sat and listned to us talk about the ins and outs of using this growing technology to make end use parts.  Here is a copy of the PowerPoint as a PDF.

We did add one bullet item in the design suggestions area based on a question. Someone pointed out that the machine instructions, what the AM machine uses to make the parts, should be a controlled document. They are exactly right and that is a very important process that needs to be put in place to get traceability and repeatability.  

Here are some useful links:

As always, do not hesitate to contact us for more information or with any questions.

If you missed this presentation, don't worry, we are looking to schedule a live/web version of this talk with some enhancements sometime in March.  Watch the usual channels for time, place, and registration information. We will also be publishing detailed blog posts on many of the topics covered today, diving deeper into areas of interest.

Thank you to the AZ Tech Council, ASU SkySong, and everyone that attended for making this our best attended non-web seminar ever.

Design and Simulation for 3D Printing Full House

The Full Power of SpaceClaim Engineer – Now Available from PADT

SpaceClaim-1We have been using SpaceClaim with ANSYS Workbench for about four years now, and we always liked it. Then it came as part of the Geomagic Spark tool and we got more excited.  This was a powerful geometry creation, editing, and reapir tool that was saving us time all across PADT.  The, when ANSYS, Inc. purchased the company SpaceClaim we got realy excited.  So excited that we decided to become a reseller of the full product, and not just the ANSYS or Geomagic tools.  The addition of a module for working with STL files sealed the deal and as of the begining of the year we are offering all flavors of SpaceClaim to our customers.

The official press release can be found here. You can learn a lot about the product by visiting the web page.

To get started learning about why we love this program so much, check out this video showing the new features in the latest version:

Then go visit their YouTube channel and watch videos that may be of special interest to you.

Or, contact us here at PADT and we would be happy to share with your our enthusiasm for this tool.

SpaceClaim-Model1b

 

Deflategate Update: ANSYS Simulation Shows it Really Does not Make a Difference.

There is still more debate going on about the deflated footballs that the New England Patriots used in their playoff game. "Who Deflated Them? When? Were they acting on orders?"  But no one is asking if it makes a real difference.

Enter ANSYS simulation software. Using the newest ANSYS product, ANSYS AIM, the engineers at ANSYS, Inc. were able to simulate the effect of lower pressure on grip. It turns out that the the difference in pressure only made a 5mm difference in grip. No big deal.  

Being a Multiphysics tool they were able to quickly also run a flow analysis and see what impact drag from "wobble" had on a pass.  A 10% off axis wobble resulted in 20% more drag, that is a few yards on a long pass.  Their conclusion, throwing a tight spiral is more important than the pressure of the ball.

Check out the full article on the ANSYS blog: 

http://www.ansys-blog.com/superbowl-deflategate-scandal-debunked-using-engineering-simulation/#more-11576

Here is the video as well:

3D Printing to Combat Deflategate

3d-printed-footballIn honor of the big game this weekend the folks at Stratasys scored big time with a 3D printed footballStratasys has had a history of using 3D printing to improve on a variety of sports; however this time they out did themselves by possibly solving the infamous issue of deflategate. Since the Ideal Gas Law doesn't exactly explain it, maybe 3D printing could help prevent it from interfering in the big game until an answer is found. I’m not sure the NFL will be too keen on using these balls but it’s a thought

super-bowl-3d-printed-football

The football was created on the Objet500 Connex3 Color Multi-Material 3D Production System and was printed in three materials.  VeroMagenta and VeroYellow was used for the bulk of the design however they were also able to replicate the true texture and feel of a real football using the rubber-like TangoPlus material and all in one print job.  It is heavier than a game ball but can still be tossed around.  Of course they wouldn’t print a football and not test it.  Check out their video below. 

Bonus Link – Here is a fun Brady Deflategate Inaction Figure from Shapeways. 

Donny Don’t – Remote Objects

Nothing like a good ‘ol fashion Simpson’s reference.  I’m trying to start a new series of articles that address common mistakes and things to avoid, and what better reference than when Bart ‘joined’ the Junior Campers and found out he might get a knife out of the deal. 

6lrWlDO

For this first article, let’s talk about remote objects (force, displacement, points, joints).  First, remote objects are awesome.  Want to add a rotational DOF to your solid-object model?  Remote Displacement.  Want to apply a load and don’t want to worry about force/moment balance?  Remote Force.  Want to apply a load but also constrain a surface?  Remote Point.  Take two points and define a open/locked degrees of freedom and you have a kinematic joint.

The thing to watch out for is how you define these remote points.  ANSYS Mechanical does an amazing job at making a pretty tedious process easy (create pilot node, create constraint-type contact, specify DOFs to include, specify formulation).  In Mechanical, all you need to do is highlight some geometry, right mouse click, and insert the appropriate object (remote point, remote force, etc).  No need to keep track of real constant sets, element tshape’s…easy.  Almost too easy if you ask me.

Once you start creating multiple remote objects, you may see the following:

message1

If you dig into the solver output file you may see this:

image

The complaint is that we have multiple overlapping constraint sets.  Let’s take a step back and see the model I’ve setup:

image

I have a cylinder, attached to a body-to-ground spring on one face, a translational joint applied on the OD, and a remote force and moment applied on the opposite end.  If I follow the instructions shown from the ANSYS Workbench message about graphically displaying FE Connections (select the ‘Solution Information’ item, click the graphics tab):

image

We can see that any type of constraint equation is shown in red.  The issue here is that the nodes on the OD edge on the top and bottom of my cylinder belong to multiple constraint equation sets.  On the bottom my my cylinder those nodes are being constrained to the spring end AND the cylindrical joint.  On the top the nodes on the edge are being constrained to the joint AND remote force.  When you hit solve, ANSYS needs to figure out how to resolve the conflicting constraint sets (a node cannot be a slave term for two different constraint sets).  I don’t know exactly how the solver manages this, but I like to imagine it’s like two people fighting over who gets to keep a dog…and they place the dog in-between them and call for it, and whoever the dog goes to gets to keep it. 

Now for this example, the solver is capable of handling the over-constraint because overall…the model is properly constrained.  The spring can loose some of the edge nodes and still properly connect to the cylinder.  Same goes for the other remote objects (translation joint and remote force/moment).  If we had more objects defined and more overlaps, that’s a different story.  You can introduce a pretty lengthy lag, or outright solver failure, if there are a lot of overconstraint terms in the model. 

So now the question becomes, how do I fix this.  The easiest way is to not fix this and ignore the warning.  If our part behaves properly, we get the reaction forces we’d expect, then odds are the overconstraint terms that are automatically corrected are fine.  If we actually wanted to remove that warning, we would need to make sure we scope remote objects that do not touch other remote objects.  We can do this by going into DesignModeler or SpaceClaim and imprinting the surfaces. 

image

In DM, I just extruded the edges with the operation set to imprint face.  In SpaceClaim you would just need to use the ‘copy edge’ option on the pull command:

image

Now this will modify the topology and will ensure we have a separation of nodes for all of our remote objects:

image

When we solve…no warning message about MPC conflicts:

image

And when we look at the FE connectivity, there are no nodes shared by multiple remote objects:

image 

The last thing I’d like to point out is the application of a force and moment on a remote point:

image

Whenever you have two remote objects operating on the same surface (e.g. a moment and force, force and displacement, etc), you should really be using a remote point.  If I were to create two remote objects:

image

I now come right back to my original problem of conflicting constraints.  These two objects share the exact same nodal set but are creating two independent remote points.  If you want to do this, right-mouse-click on one of your remote objects and select ‘promote to remote point’:

image

Then modify the other remote objects to use that remote point.  No more conflict. 

Very last point…in R16 it will now tell you when you have ‘duplicate’ remote objects  (like the remote force + displacement shown above). 

image

Hope this helps! 

3D Printing Saves Money at Hill Air Force Base in Utah

141212-F-jj999-010
An F-16 wing attachment, molded from plastic in a 3-D printer, was used as a prototype before being machined in metal. The 309th Maintenance Support Group at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, is using Rapid Prototyping, also known as 3-D printing, to create prototype parts. (U.S. Air Force photo/Bill Orndorff)

We had the pleasure of working with Hill Air Force Base in Utah to implement a Rapid Prototyping or 3D printing solution using Stratasys’ Fortus 900.  Since implementing the machine, they have seen some enormous money and time cost savings without compromising quality.

The printer at Hill AFB is used for a variety of applications from form and fit testing of new designs, tooling, and fixtures to training aids and end use parts.  They have received lots of positive feedback from their customers because they are able to adapt and quickly make changes to meet their specifications.  

The Fortus 900 is the largest FDM printer offered by Stratasys and is about the size of a mini-van.  Material options include a variety of thermoplastic materials with capabilities ranging from high heat tolerances and impact resistance to chemical resistance.

For more details on the success at Hill Air Force Base, check out an article they recently published here.

Thermal Submodeling in ANSYS Workbench Mechanical 15.0

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If you've been following The Focus for a long time, you may recall my prior article about submodeling using ANSYS Mechanical APDL, which was a 'sub' model of a submarine.  The article, from 2006, begins on page 2 at this link:

Also, Eric Miller here at PADT wrote a Focus blog entry on the new-at-14.5 submodeling capability in ANSYS Workbench Mechanical.

Since both of those articles were about structural submodeling, I decided it was time we published a blog entry on how to perform submodeling in ANSYS Mechanical for thermal simulations.

Submodeling is a technique whereby we can obtain more accurate results in a small, detailed portion of a large model without having to build an incredibly refined and detailed finite element model of our complete system.  In short, we map boundary conditions onto a 'chunk' of interest that is a subset of our full model so that we can solve that 'chunk' in more detail.  Typically we mesh the 'chunk' with a much finer mesh than was used in the original model, and sometimes we add more detail such as geometric features that didn't exist in the original model like fillets.

The ANSYS Workbench Project Schematic for a thermal solution involving submodeling looks like this:

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Figure 1 – Thermal Submodeling Project Schematic

Note that in the project schematic, the links are automatically established when we setup the submodel after completing the analysis on the coarse model as we shall see below.

First, here is the geometry of the coarse model.  It's a simple set of cooling fins.  In this idealized model, no fillets have been modeled between the fins and the block.

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Figure 2 – Coarse Model Geometry, Idealized without Fillets

The boundary conditions consisted of a heat flux due to a  thermal source on the base face and convection to ambient air on the cooling fin surfaces.  The heat flux was setup to vary over the course of 3 load steps as follows:

Load Step        Heat Flux (BTU/s*in^2)

            1                      0.2

            2                      0.5

            3                      0.005

Thus, the maximum heat going into the system occurs in load step 2, corresponding to 'time' 2.0 in this steady state analysis.

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Figure 3 – Coarse Model Boundary Conditions – Heat Flux and Convection

The coarse model is meshed with relatively large elements in this case.  The mesh refinement for a production model should be sufficient to adequately capture the fields of interest in the locations of interest.  After solving, the temperature results show a max temperature at the base where the heat flux is applied, transitioning to the minimum temperature on the cooling fins where convection is removing heat.

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Figure 4 – Coarse Model Mesh and Temperature Results for Load Step 2

Our task now is to calculate the temperature in one of these fins with more accuracy.  We will use a finer mesh and also add fillets between the fin and base.  For this example, I isolated one fin in ANSYS DesignModeler, did some slicing, and added a fillet on either side of the base of the fin of interest.

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Figure 5 – Fine Model (Submodel) Isolated Fin Geometry and Mesh, Including Fillets at Base

 

ANSYS requires that the submodel lie in the exact geometric position as it would in the coarse model, so it's a good idea to overlay our fine model geometry onto the coarse model to verify the positioning.

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Figure 6 – Submodel and Coarse Model Overlaid

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Figure 7 – Submodel and Coarse Model Overlaid, Showing Addition of Fillet

The next step is to insert the submodel geometry as a stand-alone geometry block in the Project Schematic which already contains the coarse model, as shown in figure 8.  A new Steady-State Thermal analysis is then dragged and dropped onto the geometry block containing the submodel geometry.

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Figure 8 – Submodel Geometry Added to Project Schematic, New Steady-State Thermal System Dragged and Dropped onto Submodel Geometry

 

Next, we drag and drop the Engineering Data cell from the coarse model to the Engineering Data cell in the submodel block.  This will establish a link so that the material properties will be shared.

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Figure 9 – Drag and Drop Engineering Data from Coarse Model to Submodel

The final needed link is established by dragging and dropping the Solution cell from the coarse model onto the Setup cell in the submodel.  This step causes ANSYS to recognize that we are performing submodeling, and in fact this will cause a Submodeling branch to appear in the outline tree in the Mechanical window for the submodel.

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Figure 10 – Solution Cell Dragged and Dropped from Coarse Model to Submodel Setup Cell

After opening the Mechanical editor for the submodel block, we can see that the Submodeling branch has automatically been added to the tree.

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Figure 11 – Submodeling Branch Automatically Added to Outline Tree

After meshing the submodel I specified that all three load steps should have their temperature data mapped to the submodel from the coarse model.  This was done in the Details view for the Imported Temperature branch, by setting Source Time to All.

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Figure 12 – Set Imported Temperature Source Time to All to Ensure All Loads Steps Are Mapped

Next I selected the four faces that make up the cut boundaries in the submodel and applied those to the geometry selection for Imported Temperature.

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Figure 13 – Cut Boundary Faces Selected for Imported Temperature

 

As mentioned above, the Imported Temperature details were set to read in all load steps by setting Source Time to All.  The Imported Temperature branch can now be right-clicked and the resulting imported temperatures viewed.  I also inserted a Validation branch which we will look at after solving.

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Figure 14 – Setting Source Time to All, Viewing Imported Temperature on Submodel

Any other loads that need to be applied to the submodel are added as well.  For this model, it's convection on the large faces of the fin that are exposed to ambient air.

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Figure 15 – Submodel Convection Load on Fin Exposed Faces

Since there are three load steps in the coarse model and we told ANSYS to map results from all time points, I set the number of steps to three in Analysis Settings, then solved the submodel.  Results are available for all three load steps.

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Figure 16 – Submodel Temperature Results for Step 2 (Highest Heat Flux Value in Coarse Model)

Regarding the Validation item under the Imported Temperature branch, this is probably best added after the solution is done.  In my case I had to clear it and recalculate it.  Validation can display either an absolute or relative (percent difference) plot on the nodes at which loads were imported.  Figure 17 shows the relative difference plot, which maxes out at about 6%.  The validation information as well as mapping techniques are described in the ANSYS Help.

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Figure 17 – Submodel Imported Temperature Validation Plot – Percent Difference on Mapped Nodes

Looking at the coarse model and submodel results side by side, we see good agreement in the calculated temperatures.  The temperature in the fillets shows a nice, smooth gradient.

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Figure 18 – Coarse and Submodel Temperature Results Showing Good Agreement

Hopefully this explanation will be helpful to you if you have a need to perform submodeling in a thermal simulation in ANSYS.  There is a Thermal Submodeling Workflow section in the ANSYS 15.0 Help in the Mechanical User's Guide that you may find helpful as well.

 

 

 

Turkey, Team Building, and Spaghetti Towers: PADT’s Turkey Bowl 2014

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[EDITOR’S NOTE:  This was written some time ago and was set to automatically go out. But I just found it stuck in the “pending” folder.  So late, but here it is]  

It has been a great 20th anniversary year for PADT.  And we decided to close it out with some fun.  Now, if you know engineers, getting them to take part in any team building event is tough. And many of our employees came to PADT to get away from such things. The phrase "team building" causes a Pavlovian eye roll.  As we discussed options for November, we looked at a lot of activities. When we settled on doing an event that not only involved teams, but also color coded shirts, puzzles, and (gasp) a lean towards being healthier I said "we should try it, but it probably won't work" and hoped to be proven wrong. Even with the help of the great folks at Physix, I didn't have high hopes. But you don't know until you try.

I was proven wrong. 

Kickoff: Halloween and Pumpkin Launching

We started with a kickoff event on Halloween, which was nice enough to be on a Friday this year. In the past we have carved pumpkins and built a dry-ice pumpkin mortar.  This year we fed everyone to get them in a good mood and then put them in teams.  After some trivia contests we moved over the the first event – a pumpkin slingshot.

We finished up the kickoff event with rules and a list of ways to get points:  go to lunch with team mates, go for a hike, attend a class at Physix, get a fitness assessment, lose weight, answer the weekly quiz, and walk.  The easiest way to get points was to keep track of your step count.  

Three Weeks of Getting Points

The next three weeks were fun. Different teams approached things differently. Some opted to lunch together, often.

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Others did a fitness assessment or attended a class.  One team even tried to take a hike… on Photoshop:

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Funny how their picture on Camelback Mountain looks a lot like their lunch picture…  

After a bit of a kerfuffle on Body Mass Index results from the fitness assessment, we held a brown bag seminar by the lake.  The reason why Physix is a great match for PADT is that their approach to health is science and fact based.  No chakra alignment here.  So Shannon came armed with statistics, studies, and fancy measuring devices with dials on them that we could write down numbers from.

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There was also a weight loss competition.  Points for every pound lost. There are and will not be pictures from that portion of the event. But we can share that some people dropped a few pounds over the three week period, and some more than a few.  

Turkey and Contests 

At the end of the three weeks we gathered together again to take part in our annual Thanksgiving Feast, and compete to win some additional points for our teams.

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We started with a plank contest. Expecting 5 or so people to participate, maybe one from each team. Everyone gave it a shot:

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Most people lasted a minute, then they started to drop.  

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A ton of people lasted to 2 minutes, then 3, then 4.  6 people were holding at 4:30.

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Purple had a strong showing, Renee lasting past 5 minutes.  Clinton held strong for purple.  Don, and Demola held on for Orange and Black.

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In the end, Demola won a ton of points for his team, lasting past 6 minutes.  

Next we tried a relay event that involved passing a ball over our heads and taking a step, then running to the back, then passing… what was that again. It took us a while to figure it out.  In hindsight, we should have created a process diagram before the event.  

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But Green and Black figured it out and charged to the finish line… not even stopping when one competitor stumbled.  No one left behind, as long as they have the right shirt color.

Inside, we had a timed puzzle building event. It got kind of nasty when the teams realized that each team had two pieces from another puzzle. People get aggressive when points are on the line.  There may have been some hiding, there may have been some prying of fingers open.

feverish puzzle activity

The last event was to build a tower out of spaghetti, string, tape, and a marshmallow. Whoever got their marshmallow the highest got the points.  Four of the teams built tripods and went for height.

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Two teams figured out that spaghetti bends and breaks.  Blue felt that building a box was better. I guess that is thinking outside the box?

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But the winner was a combination of tripod and "stoutness."  Green figured it out:

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There was a dessert contest as well. I grudgingly mention it because my dessert didn't make it into the finals… but I'm not bitter, not at all.

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After that we all went back to work while the PADT HR and Physix teams summed up all the points and figured out who won.  

Green, thanks to their tower, squeaked into third place:

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Some were happier than others about the competition.

Second place was won by the superior team, and we would have won if my dessert had been in the finals:

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And the winners were the Black Team.  

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You have to admit, they do look pretty confident.

What we Learned 

Overall, the three weeks were a nice distraction from a very busy period.  Some people that would not have normally spent time together, did. Some people learned a bit about fitness or nutrition that they didn't know before. A lot of people walked a lot more.  

We also learned a couple of lessons:

  1. You can have a positive and constructive team building event at a company that is kind of wired to go against such corporate group-think activities.

  2. Not everyone wants to participate. That's OK and it is no reason why those that do can't have fun.  And you can find small ways for people to take part.

  3. Some people are REALLY competitive. 

  4. The average core strength at PADT is stronger than we thought.

  5. The breath mints we got to combat coffee breath are 50 calories, and the average person has to walk around 500 steps to burn them off. 

  6. If you don't take these things too seriously, they can be fun and a nice break.

  7. PADT's employees are clever. They tried to get points for waking up in the morning and mouse clicks.  You have seen the Photoshop picture. They also wanted to pass off the PADT Medical skeleton as Don Pegg after his diet.  It didn't work.

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For those of you who are thinking of doing a similar event at your company, some key words of advice:

  1. Bring in someone to help that is a good fit for your culture. Don't try and fit a standard or large company approach to a small or medium company.  Find someone that gets you and maybe pushes your organization a bit further than you would push it on your own.

  2. Keep it short, keep it simple.

  3. Don't let the negative people drag it down. You will have some people that this is not a good fit for. If you try and please them, they will still be unhappy and it will lesson the event for others.  Just accept that not everyone will be on-board and move on.

  4. Place your tongue firmly in your cheek.  If you take these things too seriously, they will fail.  Make some fun of yourselves and the activity, it takes that edge off.

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If you do it right, you might even get engineers to touch each other.  

The Real Revolution in 3D Printing: It’s Normal

3D-printed-printerReading through my email this morning I saw an update from the "maker" site Instructables and I glanced at it quickly: "floating bed, how to make a sword, that's cool, 3D printable printer, folding chair charcoal forge, what?, parachord hammer holder, just buy one, duh, blah, blah, blah how do people have time for this… wait, 3D printable printer?" CLICK.  

So this 17 year old kid used his 3D Printer, an arduino board and parts he scrounged from old DVD drives to make a 3D Printer. Read about it here.  This kid, wootin24, designed and built an X, Y, Z positioning device that could be fited with a dremel tool to be a CNC machine, or an extruder to be a 3D Printer.  No CAD experience, no formal engineering training, just a smart person.  And the ad that popped up on the side of the how-to this kid wrote was for a Dremel 3D Printer, available at Home Depot. Not some kickstarter funded rehash of an opensource printer, Dremel. The big guys.  As I was feeling bad about how I spent my time when I was 17 (I'm not going to go there but I never did become a the backup bass player for Rush nor did I get a second date from T—–) and starting to worry about how systems from very capable companies like Dremel will impact our sales of Stratasys equipment, I realized that the true revolution in 3D printing happened and most of us involved day-to-day in the industry didn't even notice.  

3D Printing is Now Normal

When a revolutionary technology comes out there is a lot of hoopla and press. Tons of people start jumping on the bandwagon and your Aunt's friend in Topeka is sending you links on Facebook about 3D Printing and how it is "going to change everything."  Do not get me started on how 3D Printing is not new, we've been doing it at PADT for over 20 years, and certainly do not ask about the "3D printed gun.  The false-newness and fear-mongering stories are what the mainstream press picked up on. The good news is that the hype got the word out. And then smart people like this kid and the engineers at Dremel said "hmmm, that is useful. I can do something with this" and boom, the real revolution happened.  

After all these years this tool that was really a special tool used when needed, has become just another screwdriver in the toolbox.  A standard part of the process it is something most engineers understand well, and a majority of non-engineers are aware of. When we first started showing people our SLA machine back in the 90's they would either not understand what they were looking at or become flabergasted and amazed, treating it more like a magic box than a fairly simple additive curing system.  Now when we give tours we hear "that one looks like the one we have in our office" or "oh yea, an Objet, I'd love to trade my older system in for one of those." And the dreaded "oh, we have three of these in our robotics lab at school, do you have anything interesting?"  

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Amazon now has a section for all the 3D Printers they sell, just like headphones or video games.

So What

There is a lot of power in 3D Printing.  That is the real reason why the technology has blossomed as it has.  The power of 3D Printing is that it lets you make physical objects without special equipment or knowledge, the laser printer of manufacturing. However, as long as the tool is treated as something to be used in special cases or as a mystical new magic bullet, it will not be used correctly.  Now that it is mainstream, the use of additive manufacturing becomes mainstream and the power it brings to the table can be fully realized.  We see this every day at PADT. Product managers have "3D Printed Prototypes" as a standard line item in their budget templates.  Customers are increasingly talking about going back to their current product lines and identifying parts that are machined, injection molded, or cast and determining which can be replaced by 3D printed parts.  And most importantly, the supply chain and quality people are sniffing around and starting to make paperwork to control and manage 3D Printed components.  

As proponents of the technology since the early days, we could not be happier than when we see a check box for "Created with additive manufacturing" on a quality form. When it becomes part of the bureaucracy, the revolution has truly happened. 

Customer in the News: Soitec Sets Record for Solar Cell Efficiency at 46%

soitecWe noticed that customer and neighbor Soitec Phoenix Labs had a great writeup in the AZ Republic. Their substrate technology was used to make a multijunction solar cell for use with conentrated solar, delivering an amazing 46% efficiency. The standard right now in the mid to low 20% for single junction, the most common technology available. The article actually does a pretty good job of explaining the technology, why Soitec has something special, and some insight into their LED technology as well.

A big congrats to the team and we can not wait to hear when you break 50%!

They have a great video on their CPV efforts on their website.

Soitec is a french company that purchased GaNotec a few years back.  Their Phoenix Labs is across the lake in the ASU Research Park in the ASU MacroTechnology Works building and PADT has provided a variety of services to the company since it started as GaNotec.  We have worked with many of their employees at other Semiconductor Equipment companies before GaNotec was founded. 

Congrats to everyone!

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