All Things ANSYS 048: Topology Optimization & Simulation for Additive Manufacturing in ANSYS 2019 R3

 

Published on: October 7th, 2019
With: Eric Miller & Doug Oatis
Description:  

In this episode, your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s simulation support & application engineer Doug Oatis for a discussion on what is new in ANSYS 2019 R3 with regards to tools and applications for topology optimization and additive manufacturing.

If you would like to learn more about what’s new in this latest release, check out our webinar on the topic here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/372133?

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

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Mars, Hearts, Spaceships, and Universities: 2019 Colorado Additive Manufacturing Day a Success

Engineers, educators, and enthusiasts gathered on the green lawn of beside the Platte River at the Blind Faith Brewing to talk about Additive Manufacturing. Over 170 attendees (and two dogs) met each other, caught up with old colleagues, and shared their AM journey during the breaks and listened to 13 presenters and panelists. 12 antipasto platters and 30 pizzas were consumed, and 298 beers or sodas were imbibed. By the numbers and by type of interaction we saw, a successful event all around.

This was the fourth annual gathering, hosted by PADT and sponsored by our partners at this brewery. We could not have put this event on without the support of Stratasys, ANSYS, ZEISS, and Desktop Metal. We also want to thank our promotional partners, Women in 3D Printing and Space for Humanity who both brought new people to our community. Carbon, Visser and a student project with Ball Aerospace did their part as exhibitors.

Check out the Slideshow at the end of this post to get a visual snapshot of the day.

We want to thank the true stars of our event, the speakers and panelists who shared their knowledge and experience that turned a great gathering into a learning experience.

We started the morning off with an inspirational keynote from Dr. Robert Zubrin. A visionary in the space community and long term champion of going to Mars, Dr. Zubrin shared with us his observations about the new space race with his talk: “The Case for Space: How the Revolution in Spaceflight Opens Up a Future of Limitless Possibilities.” He left the packed audience energized and ready to do our part in this next step in humanities exploration of the universe. He stayed after to talk with people and sign copies of his book, which you can find here.

We then heard from user David Waller of Ball Aerospace on his experience with their Desktop Metal system. He went over the testing, lessons learned, and usage of their Studio system. It was a great in-depth look at someone implementing a new technology. There is a lot of interest around this lower-cost approach to producing metal parts, and the audience was full of questions.

Sticking with the Desktop Metal technology, PADT’s very own Pamela Waterman talked about how PADT is using our in-house Zeiss Optical Scanning hardware and software to inspect the parts we are making with our Desktop Metal System. She shared what we have learned about following the design guidelines that are developing for this technology and how scanning is a fast and accurate way to determine the final geometry created in the three-step process of building a green part, debinding, and sintering.

Next up was Christopher Robinson form ANSYS, Inc. to talk about recent additions to the ANSYS Additive products. He shared how customers are using simulation to design parts for metal powder bed fusion AM and then model the build process to predict and avoid failures as well as compensate for the distortion inherent in the process. The key takeaway was that simulation is the solution for getting parts built right the first time.

After a short break, and some AM trivia that won some PADT25 T-Shirts for people who knew the history of 3D Printing, we heard all about the new V650 Flex Stereolithography system that Stratasys recently introduced. Yes, Stratasys now makes and sells an SL system and it is literally a dream machine designed by people with decades of AM and Stereolithography experience. Learn more about this open and powerful system here.

Another AM technology was up next when Nick Jacobson spoke about Voxel Printing with PolyJet technologies. He discussed how he varies materials and colors spacially to create unique and realistic replicas for medicine and engineering. He also showed how the voxel-based geometry he creates can be used to create Virtual Reality representations of objects. Much of their work revolves around the visualization of hearts for adults and children to improve surgery planning. While we had been focused on space at the start of the afternoon, he reminded us of the immediate and life saving medical applications of AM.

And then we moved back to space with a presentation from Lockheed Martin‘s Brian Kaplun on how they are using AM to create parts that will fly on the Orion Spacecraft. Making production parts with 3D Printing has been a long-term goal for the whole industry, and Lockheed Martin has done the long and hard work of design, test, and putting processes in place to make this dream a reality. One of the biggest takeaways of his talk was how once the Astronauts saw a few AM parts in the capsule, they started asking of its use to redesign other tools and components. The ultimate end-users, they saw the value of lightweight and strong parts that could be made without the limitations of traditional manufacturing.

We finished up the day, after another break and some more trivia, with a fascinating panel on AM at Colorado’s leading Universities. We were lucky to have Ray Huff from Wohlers Associates moderate a distinguished group of deans, directors, and professors from four outstanding but different institutions:

  • Martin Dunn PhD,  Dean of Engineering, CU Denver
  • Jenifer Blacklock PHD, Mechanical Engineering Professor – Colorado School of Mines
  • David Prawel PhD, Director, Idea-2-Product 3D Printing Lab, Colorado State University 
  • Matt Gordon, PhD,  Chair, Mechanical Engineering, University of Denver 

Their wide-ranging discussion covered their education and research around AM. A common theme was industry cooperation. Each school shared how they use AM to help students not just make things, but also understand how parts are made. The discussion was fantastic and ended far too soon, which is always an indicator of a great group of experts.

And that sums up our great day, leaving out several hundred side conversations that went on. Check out this slide show to get a feel for how energetic and interesting the afternoon was.

As everyone left, some reluctantly and after one more beer, the common comment was that they can’t wait to get together again with everyone. We hope that next year we will have more speakers and participants and continue to support the growth of Additive Manufacturing in Colorado.

A quick note about the location: You are not wrong if you remember a different name for the three previous events. St. Patricks’s is now Blind Faith and the new owners could have not been more welcoming. Plus, they have more Belgian’s, which I am a big fan of.

Topology Optimization & Simulation for Additive Manufacturing in ANSYS 2019 R3 – Webinar

ANSYS offers a complete simulation workflow for additive manufacturing (AM) that allows you to transition your R&D efforts for metal additive manufacturing into a successful manufacturing operation. This best-in-class solution for additive manufacturing enables simulation at every step in your AM process. It will help you optimize material configurations and machine and parts setup before you begin to print. As a result, you’ll greatly reduce — and potentially eliminate — the physical process of trial-and- error testing.

Through the use of ANSYS tools such as Additive Prep, Print, and Science, paired with topology optimization capabilities in ANSYS Mechanical Workbench, the need for physical process of trial-and-error testing has been greatly reduced.

Join PADT’s Simulation Support and Application Engineer Doug Oatis for an exploration of the ANSYS tools that help to optimize additive manufacturing, and what new capabilities are available for them when upgrading to ANSYS 2019 R3. This presentation includes updates regarding:

  • Level-set based topology optimization
  • The export of build files directly to AM machines
  • Switching between viewing STL supports, mesh, or element densities
  • Multiple support being made in a single simulation (volume-less & solid supports)
  • And much more

Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

Video Interview: Topology Optimization versus Generative Design

While attending the 2019 RAPID + TCT conference in Detroit this year, I was honored to be interviewed by Stephanie Hendrixson, the Senior Editor of Additive Manufacturing magazine and website. We had a great chat, covering a lot of topics. I do tend to go on, so it turned into two videos.

The first video is about the use of simulation in AM. You should watch that one first, here, because we refer back to some of the basics when we zoomed in on optimization.

Generative design is the use of a variety of tools to drive the design of components and systems to directly meet requirements. One of those tools, the most commonly used, is Topological Optimization. Stephanie and I explore what it is all about, and the power of using these technologies, in this video:

You can view the full article on the Additive Manufacturing website here.

If you have any questions about how you can leverage simulation to add value to your AM processes, contact PADT or shoot me an email at eric.miller@padtinc.com.

Video Interview: 3 Roles for Simulation in Additive Manufacturing

While attending the 2019 RAPID + TCT conference in Detroit this year, I was honored to be interviewed by Stephanie Hendrixson, the Senior Editor of Additive Manufacturing magazine and website. We had a great chat, covering a lot of topics. I do tend to go on, so it turned into two videos.

In the first video, we chat about how simulation can improve the use of Additive Manufacturing for production hardware. We go over the three uses: optimizing the part geometry to take advantage of AM’s freedom, verifying that the part you are about to create will survive and perform as expected, and modeling the build process itself.

You can read the article and watch the video here on the Additive Manufacturing website. Or you can watch it here:

If you have any questions about how you can leverage simulation to add value to your AM processes, contact PADT or shoot me an email at eric.miller@padtinc.com.

For the second interview, we focus on Topological Optimization, Generative design, and the difference between the two. Check that out here.

Press Release: PADT Adds the Faster, Larger and More Advanced Stratasys F900 Fused Deposition Modeling Additive Manufacturing System at its Tempe Headquarters

Well, the cat is now out of the bag. We are pleased to announce that we now have a Stratasys F900 FDM system up and running at PADT. Over the years we have helped dozens of customers specify and acquire their own F900 system. These are great machines. And our services customers were always asking when we would be adding one to our fleet of machines.

The answer is now. Our new F900 is up and running and making large, robust, and accurate parts right now.

A few weeks ago we published this picture on social media to announce the arrival of something big:

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Now we can share what it was all about. Inside the truck was a big box:

And inside that box was a brand new Stratasys F900 FDM System!

It was a tight fit through PADT’s painting room, down the hallway, and into its new home:

After our team plugged it in and Stratasys came out to finish the install and calibrate everything, we ran our first part:

This is a big machine:

Here are the specs:

Build Size: 36 x 24 x 36 in
Layer thickness: 0.005 in – 0.020 in
Materials: ABS-ESD7, ABSi, ABS-M30, ABS-M30i, ABSplus, ASA, FDM Nylon 12, FDM Nylong 5, PC, PC-ABS, PC-Iso, PPSF, ST-130, ULTEM.

The machine is up and running and ready to make parts. So please contact us at rp@padtinc.com or 480.813.4884 to talk about how our new, big, fast, robust machine can 3D Print better and bigger parts for you.

We have an official press release below or here.


PADT Adds the Faster, Larger and More Advanced Stratasys F900 Fused Deposition Modeling Additive Manufacturing System at its Tempe Headquarters

The F900 is the Most Capable System on the Market for Companies Who Need Large, 3D-Printed Production Parts in Small or Large Volume

TEMPE, Ariz., August 29, 2019 ─ In an exciting development that enhances its additive manufacturing services and capabilities, PADT, a globally recognized provider of numerical simulation, product development, and 3D printing products and services, added a Stratasys F900 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Additive Manufacturing System at its headquarters in Tempe, Arizona. With fast build speed and large build volume, the F900 significantly increased PADT’s 3D Printing capability and capacity.

“The addition of the F900 flagship FDM printer to our growing lineup of additive manufacturing systems is a major milestone in our long-term partnership with Stratasys,” said Ward Rand, co-founder and principal, PADT. “This move greatly enhances the capabilities we provide our customers based on Stratasys’ leading-edge equipment.”

The Stratasys F900 is specifically built for manufacturing and aerospace. With the largest build size of any Stratasys FDM system, it’s designed to handle the most demanding manufacturing needs. The system uses a wide range of thermoplastics with advanced mechanical properties so parts can endure high heat, caustic chemicals, sterilization and high-impact applications.

FDM is the most common additive manufacturing process because of the technology’s ability to provide robust parts quickly at low-cost. PADT has developed expertise with the FDM printing process over the past 20 years. The Stratasys F900 is the pinnacle of FDM technology because it’s designed to meet the needs of the manufacturing industry’s shift from prototyping towards production parts. The addition of the F900 comes at a critical time for PADT due to the increased demand from its customers in industries such as aviation, space and defense, to create end-use components created under ISO9001/AS9100 standards.

“When we added a large stereolithography machine in 2018, we quickly learned how significant the demand is for more materials, larger parts, and faster turnaround,” said Rey Chu, co-founder and principal, PADT. “The Stratasys F900 fulfills all three of these same requirements for companies who need the outstanding performance of parts made with the FDM process. We look forward to partnering with our customers to make innovation work with this new capability.”

This new system will augment PADT’s existing fleet of four FDM systems from Stratasys.  It will compliment Stereolithography, PolyJet, Selective Laser Sintering, and Digital Light Synthesis systems. This wide range of material and process choices is why hundreds of companies rely on PADT as their Additive Manufacturing services provider. 

To learn more about PADT and its services, please visit www.padtinc.com.

About Phoenix Analysis and Design Technologies

Phoenix Analysis and Design Technologies, Inc. (PADT) is an engineering product and services company that focuses on helping customers who develop physical products by providing Numerical Simulation, Product Development, and 3D Printing solutions. PADT’s worldwide reputation for technical excellence and experienced staff is based on its proven record of building long-term win-win partnerships with vendors and customers. Since its establishment in 1994, companies have relied on PADT because “We Make Innovation Work.” With over 80 employees, PADT services customers from its headquarters at the Arizona State University Research Park in Tempe, Arizona, and from offices in Torrance, California, Littleton, Colorado, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Austin, Texas, and Murray, Utah, as well as through staff members located around the country. More information on PADT can be found at www.padtinc.com.

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3D Printing with Stratasys to Improve Workflow Efficiency

As advancements in R&D continue to expand hardware innovation in almost every industry, 3D printing is playing an increasingly larger role. For a long time, companies developed prototypes via fabrication in a machine shop or outsourced to a third party contractor. This process proved to be costly and slow. With innovations like the Stratasys F123 series, industrial-grade 3D printers, prototyping is becoming simpler, more cost-efficient, and faster. PADT is a reseller and support provider for the F123 series and has seen it used to great success in its customer’s hands.

“Our customers are finding the Stratasys F123 3D printers to be a great addition to their design floors,” said Rey Chu, co-founder and principal, PADT. “They have a very minimal learning curve, and a range of material options that provides flexibility for a wide variety of parts.”

As some of the most well-rounded 3D printers in the industry, the Stratasys F123 Series have won numerous awards. It’s easy to operate and maintain these machines, regardless of the user’s level of experience, and they are proficient at every stage of prototyping, from concept to validation, to functional performance.

The printers work with a range of materials – so users can produce complex parts with flexibility and accuracy. This includes advanced features like Fast Draft mode for truly rapid prototyping and soluble support to prevent design compromise and hands-on removal – All designed to shorten product development cycles and time to market.

All of these different characteristics allow for the F123 series to provide innovative solutions for manufacturers working with a wide variety of applications. This vast array of potential use is best seen in the assortment of companies that have purchased the Stratasys F370, the largest and most robust model in the F123 line of 3D printers; boasting a 14 x 10 x 14 in. build size, additional software integration, and access to a plethora of unique materials designed to help ensure prototyping success, all at an accessible price point. Companies that best represent the diversity of this machine include:

Juggernaut Design | Industrial Design Logo

Juggernaut Design

PADT client Juggernaut is an authority in rugged product design, bringing innovation and expertise to products to survive in challenging environments. Employing the latest tools and technology, this team of designers and engineers is always looking for the best way to meet their client’s ever-evolving requirements. 3D printing is one such tool a design firm like Juggernaut relies on. Covering everything from the development of prototypes and form studies, to ergonomic test rigs and even functional models, the need for quick turnaround is relevant at nearly every stage of the design process. Having physical parts to show to clients also helps to improve communication, allowing them to better visualize key design elements.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on advancing the science and engineering of energy efficiency, sustainable transportation, and renewable power technologies, including marine energy. When it comes to developing the components of a wave energy device that produce power from relative motion induced by the dynamics of ocean waves for example, NREL’s research requires extensive validation before it is ready for commercialization. This process often includes generating sub-scale components for numerical model validation, prototypes for proof of concept, and other visual representations to provide clarity throughout the entire manufacturing process. It’s also important to accurately validate research projects at a more manageable and cost-effective scale before moving beyond the prototype stage.

Recently, NREL has ventured into building parts with more complex geometries, such as 3D printing hydrodynamically accurate models that are able to effectively represent the intricacies of various geometry and mass properties at scale.

Sierra Nevada Corporation

Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) is a privately held, advanced technology company providing customer-focused innovative solutions in the areas of aerospace, aviation, electronics, and systems integration. SNC’s diverse technologies are used in applications including telemedicine, navigation and guidance systems, threat detection and security, commercial aviation, scientific research, and infrastructure protection, among others. SNC decided to purchase an F370 Stratasys 3D printer to help the company’s engineering team iterate faster on new application designs. This machine was specifically attractive due to the reasonable purchase and operational costs of Stratasys printers, as well as the reduced manufacturing times it provided.

These use cases provide an example of how the Stratasys F123 series is helping to replace traditional manufacturing to save costs and provide a more efficient in-house, rapid design solution. The Stratasys F123 printers, and specifically the power and size of its flagship model, the F370, are revolutionizing design team’s workflow by providing more flexibility and accessibility than ever before.

To learn more about the Stratasys F123 Series, and find the machine that is right for you, please visit PADT’s Stratasys product page here. And to talk to PADT’s sales staff about a demo, please call 1-800-293-PADT.

Press Release: PADT Awarded U.S. Army Phase I SBIR Grant for Combustor Geometry Research Using 3D Printing, Simulation, and Product Development

We are pleased to announce that the US Army has awarded PADT a Phase I SBIR Grant to explore novel geometries for combustor cooling holes. This is our 15th SBIR/STTR win.

We are excited about this win because it is a project that combines Additive Manufacturing, CFD and Thermal Simulation, and Design in one project. And to make it even better, the work is being done in conjunction with our largest customer, Honeywell Aerospace.

We look forward to getting started on this first phase where we will explore options and then applying for a larger Phase II grant to conduct more thorough simulation then build and test the options we uncover in this phase.

Read more below. The official press release is here for HTML and here for PDF.

If you have any needs to explore new solutions or new geometries using Additive Manufacturing or applying advanced simulation to drive new and unique designs, please contact us at 480.813.4884 or info@padtinc.com.


PADT Awarded U.S. Army Phase I SBIR Grant for Combustor Geometry Research Using 3D Printing, Simulation, and Product Development

The Project Involves the Development of Sand-Plugging Resistant Metallic Combustor Liners

TEMPE, Ariz., August 15, 2019 ─ In recognition of its continued excellence and expertise in 3D printing, simulation, and product development, PADT announced today it has been awarded a $107,750 U.S. Army Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant. With the support of Honeywell Aerospace, PADT’s research will focus on the development of gas turbine engine combustor liners that are resistant to being clogged with sand.  The purpose of this research is to reduce downtime and improve the readiness of the U.S. Army’s critical helicopters operating in remote locations where dirt and sand can enter their engines.  

“PADT has supported advanced research in a wide variety of fields which have centered around various applications of our services,” said Eric Miller, co-founder and principal, PADT. “We’re especially proud of this award because it requires the use of our three main areas of expertise, 3D printing, simulation and product development. Our team is uniquely capable of combining these three disciplines to develop a novel solution to a problem that impacts the readiness of our armed forces.”

The challenge PADT will be solving is when helicopters are exposed to environments with high concentrations of dust, they can accumulate micro-particles in the engine that clog the metal liner of the engine’s combustor. Combustors are where fuel is burned to produce heat that powers the gas turbine engine. To cool the combustor, thousands of small holes are drilled in the wall, or liner, and cooling air is forced through them. If these holes become blocked, the combustor overheats and can be damaged.  Blockage can only be remedied by taking the engine apart to replace the combustor. These repairs cause long-term downtime and significantly reduce readiness of the Army’s fleets.

PADT will design various cooling hole geometries and simulate how susceptible they are to clogging using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tools. Once the most-promising designs have been identified through simulation, sample coupons will be metal 3D printed and sent to a test facility to verify their effectiveness.  Additionally, PADT will experiment with ceramic coating processes on the test coupons to determine the best way to thermally protect the 3D printed geometries.

“When we developed new shapes for holes in the past, we had no way to make them using traditional manufacturing,” said Sina Ghods, principal investigator, PADT. “The application of metal additive manufacturing gives PADT an opportunity to create shapes we could never consider to solve a complex challenge for the U.S. Army. It also gives us a chance to demonstrate the innovation and growth of the 3D printing industry and its applications for harsh, real-world environments.”

Honeywell joined PADT to support this research because it is well aligned with the company’s Gas Turbine Engine products. The outcome of this research has the potential to significantly improve the performance of the company’s engines operating in regions with high dust concentrations.

This will be PADT’s 15th SBIR/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) award since the company was founded in 1994. In August 2018, the company, in partnership with Arizona State University, was awarded a $127,000 STTR Phase I Grant from NASA to accelerate biomimicry research, the study of 3D printing objects that resemble strong and light structures found in nature such as honeycombs or bamboo.

To learn more about PADT and its advanced capabilities, please visit www.padtinc.com.

About Phoenix Analysis and Design Technologies

Phoenix Analysis and Design Technologies, Inc. (PADT) is an engineering product and services company that focuses on helping customers who develop physical products by providing Numerical Simulation, Product Development, and 3D Printing solutions. PADT’s worldwide reputation for technical excellence and experienced staff is based on its proven record of building long-term win-win partnerships with vendors and customers. Since its establishment in 1994, companies have relied on PADT because “We Make Innovation Work.” With over 80 employees, PADT services customers from its headquarters at the Arizona State University Research Park in Tempe, Arizona, and from offices in Torrance, California, Littleton, Colorado, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Austin, Texas, and Murray, Utah, as well as through staff members located around the country. More information on PADT can be found at www.PADTINC.com.

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All Things ANSYS 041: Simulating Additive Manufacturing in ANSYS 2019 R2

 

Published on: July 15th, 2019
With: Eric Miller & Doug Oatis
Description:  

In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s Lead Mechanical Engineer Doug Oatis, to discuss the tools that make up the ANSYS Additive family of products (Additive Suite, Additive Print, & Additive Prep), and how those tools help to make 3D printing more effective and easier to navigate.

If you would like to learn more about what’s available in this latest release check out PADT’s webinar on Additive Manufacturing Updates Updates in ANSYS 2019 R2 here: https://bit.ly/2JHWYxn

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

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Simulation for Additive Manufacturing In ANSYS 2019 R2 – Webinar

Additive manufacturing (3D Printing) has been rapidly gaining popularity as a true manufacturing process in recent years. ANSYS’ best-in-class solution for additive manufacturing enables simulation at every step in your AM process, and helps to optimize material configurations, and machine & parts setup before printing begins. 

Through the use of ANSYS tools such as Additive Suite & Additive Print, paired with topology optimization capabilities in ANSYS Mechanical Workbench, the need for physical process of trial-and-error testing has been greatly reduced. 

Join PADT’s Simulation Support and Application Engineer Doug Oatis for an exploration of the ANSYS tools that help to optimize additive manufacturing, and what new capabilities are available within them when upgrading to ANSYS 2019 R2. This presentation includes updates regarding:

  • Archiving materials no longer in use
  • Visualization of AM process
  • AM overhang angles
  • Preview part & support
  • And much more

Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

3D Printing Polymer Parts with Electrostatic Dissipative (ESD) Properties

Getting zapped by static electricity at the personal level is merely annoying; having your sensitive electronic equipment buzzed is another, highly destructive story.

Much as you’d like to send these components out into the world wearing their own little anti-static wristbands, that’s just not practical (and actually, not good enough*). During build and use, advanced electronics applications need true charge-dissipative protection that is inherent to their design and easy to achieve. However, the typical steps of painting or coating, covering with conductive tape, or wrapping with carbon-filled/aluminum-coated films incur both time and cost.

Electrostatic dissipative (ESD) polymer materials instead provide this kind of protection on a built-in basis, offering a moderately conductive “exit path” that naturally dissipates the charge build-up that can occur during normal operations. It also prevents powders, dust or fine particles from sticking to the surface. Whether the task is protecting circuit boards during transport and testing, or ensuring that the final product works as designed throughout its lifetime, ESD materials present low electrical resistance while offering the required mechanical, and often thermal and/or chemically-resistant properties.

ESD-safe fixture for testing a printed-circuit board, produced by 3D printing with Stratasys ABS-ESD7 material. (Image courtesy of Stratasys)

Combining ESD Behavior with 3D Printing

All the features that are appealing with 3D printing carry over when printing with ESD-enabled thermoplastics. You can print trays custom-configured to hold circuit-boards for in-process testing, print conformal fixtures that speed up sorting, and produce end-use structures for projects where static build-up is simply not allowed (think mission-critical aerospace applications).

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), that work-horse of the plastics industry, has been available as 3D printing filament for decades. Along the way, Stratasys and other vendors started offering this filament in a version filled with carbon particles that decrease the plastic’s inherent electrical resistance. Stratasys ABS-ESD7 runs on the Fortus 380, 400, 450 and 900 industrial systems, and soon will be available on the office-friendly F370 printer.

What kind of performance does ABS-ESD7 offer? When evaluating materials for ESD performance, the most important property is usually the surface resistance, measured in ohms. (This is not the same as surface resistivity, plus there’s also volume resistivity – see Note at end). Conductive materials – typically metals – have a surface resistance generally less than 103 ohms, insulators such as most plastics are rated at greater than 1012 ohms, and ESD materials fall in the mid-range, at 106 to 109 ohms.

Compared to standard ABS filament, ABS-ESD7 offers more than five orders of magnitude lower resistance, converting it from an insulator to a material that provides an effective static-discharge path to the outside world. Due to the inherent layered structure of FDM parts, the differences in properties between flat (XY) and vertical (ZX) build orientations produces a range of resistance values, with a target of 107 ohms, reflected in the product name of ABS-ESD7. Stratasys offers an excellent, easy-to-read FAQ paper about ABS-ESD7.

Printed-circuit board production tool, custom 3D-printed in Stratasys ABS-ESD7 material for built-in protection from electrostatic discharge during test and handling. (Image courtesy of Stratasys)

When ABS isn’t strong enough or won’t hold up to temperature extremes, engineers can turn to Stratasys’ ESD-enhanced polyetherketoneketone (PEKK), termed Antero 840CN03. Developed in 2016 and slated for full release in October 2019, this new filament expands the company’s Antero line of  high-temperature, chemically resistant formulations. The PEKK base material offers a high glass transition temperature (Tg 149C, compared to 108C for ABS-ESD7) while meeting stringent outgassing and cleanroom requirements. As with ABS-ESD7, the carbon-nanotube loading lowers electrical resistance values of Antero 840CN03 parts to the desirable “ESD safe” range of 106 to 109 ohm.

Setting up Parts for Printing with ESD-Enhanced Filament                                                            

Support structures in contact with part walls/surfaces can disturb the surface resistance behavior. To counter-act this condition for filament printing with any type of ESD material, users should perform a special calibration that makes the printer lay down slightly thinner-than-usual layers of support material. In Stratasys Insight software, this is currently accomplished by setting the Support Offset Thickness to -0.003; this decreases the support layers from 0.010 inches to 0.007 inches. In addition, supports should be removed (in Insight software) from holes that are smaller in diameter than 0.25 inches (6.35mm).

As more of these materials are developed, the software will be updated to automatically create supports with this process in mind.

ESD Applications for 3D Printing

Avionics boxes, fixtures for holding and transporting circuit boards, storage containers for fuel, and production-line conveyor systems are just a few examples of end-use applications of ESD-enabled materials. Coupled with the geometric freedom offered by 3D printing, three categories of manufacturing and operations are improved:

  • Protecting electronics from ESD damage (static shock)
  • Preventing fire/explosion (static spark)
  • Preserving equipment/product performance (static cling)

If you’re exploring how 3D printing with ESD-enhanced materials can help with your industrial challenge, contact our PADT Manufacturing group: get your questions answered, have some sample parts printed, and discover what filament is right for you.

PADT Inc. is a globally recognized provider of Numerical Simulation, Product Development and 3D Printing products and services. For more information on Insight, GrabCAD and Stratasys products, contact us at info@padtinc.com.

*Anti-static is a qualitative term and refers to something that prevents build-up of static, rather than dissipating what does occur


Surface Resistance, Surface Resistivity and Volume Resistivity

Surface resistance in ohms is a measurement to evaluate static-dissipative packaging materials.

Surface resistivity in ohms/square is used to evaluate insulative materials where high resistance characteristics are desirable. (Ref. https://www.evaluationengineering.com/home/article/13000514/the-difference-between-surface-resistance-and-surface-resistivity)

The standard for measuring surface resistance of ESD materials is EOS/ESD S11.11, released in 1993 by the ESD Association as an improvement over ASTM D-257 (the classic standard for evaluating insulators). Driving this need was the non-homogeneous structure of ESD materials (conductive material added to plastic), which had a different effect on testing parameters such as voltage or humidity,  than found with evaluating conductors.

Volume resistivity is yet a third possible measured electrical property, though again better suited for true conductors rather than ESD material. It depends on the area of the ohmeter’s electrodes and the thickness of the material sample. Units are ohm-cm or ohm-m.

             

Bring Your Most Imaginative Ideas to Life with Pantone Validation on the Stratasys J750 & J735

If seeing is believing, holding something this vivid is knowing for sure.

The Stratasys J735 and J750 deliver unrivaled aesthetics to your brightest ideas and boldest ambitions with true, full-color capability, texture mapping and color gradients.

3D print prototypes that look, feel and operate like the finished products in multiple materials and colors without sacrificing time for intricacy and complexity. Better communicate designs with vivid, realistic samples, and save on manual post-processing delays and costs.

Stratasys J735 and J750 printers are PANTONE Validated™

This validation makes the Pantone Matching System (PMS) Colors available for the first time in a 3D printing solution. It provides a universal language of color that enables color-critical decisions through every stage of the workflow for brands and manufacturers. It helps define, communicate and control color from inspiration to realization.

Color matching to Pantone Colors in a single click

GrabCAD Print software provides a quicker, more realistic expression of color in your models and prototypes, saving hours over traditional paint matching or iterative color matching processes.

  • Adding Pantone color selection increases the color gamut found within the GrabCAD Print Application and simplifies the color selection process
  • Designers can access the colors directly from GrabCAD Print, selecting Pantone within the Print Settings dialog box. From within this view the user can search for their desired Pantone color or select from the list.

Multiple material selections

This means  you can load up to six materials at once, including any combination of rigid, flexible, transparent or opaque materials and their components.

Double the number of print nozzles

More print heads means you can produce ultra-smooth surfaces and fine details with layer thickness as fine as 0.014 mm—about half the width of a human skin cell.

Discover how you can achieve stronger realism and color matching thanks to the Pantone Validation available on the Stratasys J750 & J735.

Contact the industry experts at PADT via the link below for more information:

Presentation: 3D Printing & Optics

The experts at PADT are often asked to speak at conferences around the country, even around the world. This is a great opportunity for us to present what we do and share what we know. The downside is that we only reach the people in the room. The solve this, we are going back and presenting past live seminars at our desks and recording them on BrightTalk. This is the third of those recordings. To find others go to our BrightTalk Channel

The world of optical systems is a subset of mechanical engineering with unique needs and requirements. Those unique needs also make it an ideal area to apply Additive Manufacturing, also known as 3D Printing.

This is a presentation that we gave at Photonics Days, held at the University of Arizona in Tucson Arizona from January 30th through February 1st of 2019.

You can view the presentation on BrightTALK here:
https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/360024

Presentation: Metal 3D Printing is Changing Design, Here is how Design Engineers can Adapt

Legacy Presentation Series:

The experts at PADT are often asked to speak at conferences around the country, even around the world. This is a great opportunity for us to present what we do and share what we know. The downside is that we only reach the people in the room. The solve this, we are going back and presenting past live seminars at our desks and recording them on BrightTalk. This is the first of those recordings. To find others go to our BrightTalk Channel

Metal 3D Printing systems, especially Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing machines, have made the free-form creation of metal parts directly from CAD a reality. This has freed geometry from the constraints of traditional manufacturing and reducing the product development process. 

This presentation goes over what Design Engineers need to know to adapt to the possibility and constraints of 3D Printing in metal.

View the recording here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/359359

3D Printing Infill Styles – the What, When and Why of Using Infill

Have you ever wondered about choosing a plain versus funky infill-style for filament 3D-printing? Amongst the ten standard types (no, the cat infill design is not one of them), some give you high strength, some greatly decrease material use or printing time, and others are purposely tailored with an end-use in mind.

Highly detailed Insight slicing software from Stratasys gives you the widest range of possibilities; the basic versions are also accessible from GrabCAD Print, the direct-CAD-import, cloud-connected slicing software that offers an easy approach for all levels of 3D print users.

A part that is mimicking or replacing a metal design would do best when built with Solid infill to give it weight and heft, while a visual-concept model printed as five different test-versions may work fine with a Sparse infill, saving time and material. Here at PADT we printed a number of sample cubes with open ends to demonstrate a variety of the choices in action. Check out these hints for evaluating each one, and see the chart at the end comparing build-time, weight and consumed material.

Infill choices for 3D printed parts, offered with Stratasys’ GrabCAD Print software. (Image courtesy PADT Inc.)

Basic Infill Patterns

Solid (also called Alternating Raster) This is the default pattern, where each layer has straight fill-lines touching each other, and the layer direction alternates by 90 degrees. This infill uses the most material but offers the highest density; use it when structural integrity and super-low porosity are most important.

Solid (Alternating Raster)

Sparse Raster lines for Sparse infill also run in one direction per layer, alternating by layer, but are widely spaced (the default spacing is 0.080 inches/2 mm). In Insight, or using the Advanced FDM settings in GrabCAD, you can change the width of both the lines and the spaces.

Sparse Double Dense As you can imagine, Sparse Double Dense achieves twice the density of regular Sparse: it deposits in two directions per layer, creating an open grid-pattern that stacks up throughout the part.

Sparse High Density Just to give you one more quick-click option, this pattern effectively sits between Sparse Double Dense and Solid. It lays rasters in a single direction per layer, but not as closely spaced as for Solid.

Hexagram The effect of this pattern looks similar to a honeycomb but it’s formed differently. Each layer gets three sets of raster lines crossing at different angles, forming perfectly aligned columns of hexagons and triangles. Hexagram is time-efficient to build, lightweight and strong in all directions.

Hexagram
Additional infill styles and the options for customizing them within a part, offered within Stratasys Insight 3D printing slicing and set-up software. (Image courtesy PADT Inc.)

Advanced Infill Patterns (via Custom Groups in Insight)

Hexagon By laying down rows of zig-zag lines that alternately bond to each other and bend away, Hexagon produces a classic honeycomb structure (every two rows creates one row of honeycomb). The pattern repeats layer by layer so all vertical channels line up perfectly. The amount of build material used is just about one-third that of Solid but strength is quite good.

Hexagon

Permeable Triangle A layer-by-layer shifting pattern of triangles and straight lines creates a strong infill that builds as quickly as Sparse, but is extremely permeable. It is used for printing sacrificial tooling material (i.e., Stratsys ST130) that will be wrapped with composite material and later dissolved away.

Permeable Triangle

Permeable Tubular This infill is formed by a 16-layer repeating pattern deposited first as eight varying wavy layers aligned to the X axis and then the same eight layers aligned to the Y axis. The resulting structure is a series of vertical cylinders enhanced with strong cross-bars, creating air-flow channels highly suited to tooling used on vacuum work-holding tables.

Permeable Tubular 0.2 Spacing
Permeable Tubular 0.5 Spacing

Gyroid (so cool we printed it twice) The Gyroid pattern belongs to a class of mathematically minimal surfaces, providing infill strength similar to that of a hexagon, but using less material. Since different raster spacings have quite an effect, we printed it first with the default spacing of 0.2 inches and then widened that to 0.5 inches. Print time and material use dropped dramatically.

Gyroid 0.2 Spacing
Gyroid 0.5 Spacing

Schwarz D (Diamond) This alternate style of minimal surface builds in sets of seven different layers along the X-axis, ranging from straight lines to near-sawtooth waves, then flipping to repeat the same seven layers along the Y-axis. The Schwarz D infill balances strength, density and porosity. As with the Gyroid, differences in raster spacing have a big influence on the material use and build-time.

Schwarz Diamond 0.2 Spacing
Schwarz Diamond 0.5 Spacing

Digging Deeper Into Infill Options

Infill Cell Type/0.2 spacing Build Time Weight Material Used
Alternating Raster (Solid) 1 h 57 min 123.77 g 6.29 cu in.
Sparse Double Dense 1 hr 37 min 44.09 g 4.52 cu in.
Hexagon (Honeycomb) 1 h 49 min 37.79 g 2.56 cu in.
Hexagram (3 crossed rasters) 1 h 11 min. 47.61 g 3.03 cu in.
Permeable Triangle 1 h 11 min. 47.67 g 3.04 cu in.
Permeable Tubular – small 2 h 5 min. 43.95 g 2.68 cu in.
Gyroid – small 1 h 48 min. 38.68 g 2.39 cu in.
Schwarz Diamond (D) – small 1 h 35 min. 47.8 g 3.04 cu in.
Infill Cell Type/0.5 spacing Build Time Weight Material Used
Permeable Tubular – Large 1 h 11 min. 21.84 g 1.33 cu in.
Gyroid – Large 57 min. 20.59 g 1.29 cu in.
Schwarz Diamond (D) – Large 58 min. 23.74 g 1.51 cu in.

Hopefully this information helps you perfect your design for optimal strength or minimal material-use or fastest printing. If you’re still not sure which way to go, contact our PADT Manufacturing group: get your questions answered, have some sample parts printed and discover what infill works best for the job at hand.

PADT Inc. is a globally recognized provider of Numerical Simulation, Product Development and 3D Printing products and services. For more information on Insight, GrabCAD and Stratasys products, contact us at info@padtinc.com.