Mechanical Updates in Ansys 2020 R2 – Webinar

From designers and occasional users looking for quick, easy and accurate results, to experts looking to model complex materials, large assemblies and nonlinear behavior, Ansys has you covered. The intuitive interface of Ansys Mechanical enables engineers of all levels to get answers fast and with confidence. Ansys structural analysis software is used across industries to help engineers optimize their product designs and reduce the costs of physical testing.

Ansys Mechanical is the flagship mechanical engineering software solution that uses finite element analysis (FEA) for structural analysis.It covers an enormous range of applications and comes complete with everything you need from geometry preparation to optimization and all the steps in between. With Mechanical Enterprise you can model advanced materials, complex environmental loadings and industry-specific requirements in areas such as offshore hydrodynamics and layered composite materials.

In this webinar, PADT’s Senior Mechanical Engineer & Lead Trainer, Joe Woodward will cover a few key components of this tool and what is newly available for them in Ansys 2020 R2. This includes updates for:

– Mechanical Core

– Mechanical Graphics/Post Processing

– Linear Dynamics

– SMART Fracture

Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

Top Ten Additive Manufacturing Terms to Know

The world of additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, is constantly evolving. The technology was invented less than 35 years ago yet has come a long way. What began as a unique, though limited, way to develop low-end prototypes, has exploded into a critical component of the product development and manufacturing process with the ability to produce end-use parts for critical applications in markets such as industrial and aerospace and defense.

To help our customers and the larger technology community stay abreast of the changing world of additive manufacturing, we launched a glossary of the most important terms in the industry that you can bookmark here for easy access. To make it easier to digest, we’re also starting a blog series outlining ten terms to know in different sub-categories.

For our first post in the series, here are the top ten terms for Additive Manufacturing Processes that our experts think everyone should know:

Binder Jetting

Any additive manufacturing process that uses a binder to chemically bond powder where the binder is placed on the top layer of powder through small jets, usually using inkjet technology. One of the seven standard categories defined by ASTM International (www.ASTM.org) for additive manufacturing processes.

Digital Light Synthesis (DLS)

A type of vat photopolymerization additive manufacturing process where a projector under a transparent build plate shines ultraviolet light onto the build layer, which is against the transparent build plate. The part is then pulled upward so that a new layer of liquid fills between the build plate and the part, and the process is repeated. Digital light synthesis is a continuous build process that does not create distinct layers.

Direct Laser Melting (DLM) or Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS)

A type of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process where a laser beam is used to melt powder material. The beam is directed across the top layer of powder. The liquid material solidifies to create the desired part. A new layer of powder is placed on top, and the process is repeated. Also called laser powder bed fusion, metal powder bed fusion, or direct metal laser sintering.

Directed Energy Deposition (DED)

An additive manufacturing process where metal powder is jetted, or wire is extruded from a CNC controlled three or five-axis nozzle. The solid material is then melted by an energy source, usually a laser or electron beam, such that the liquid metal deposits onto the previous layers (or build plate) and then cools to a solid. One of the ASTM defined standard categories for additive manufacturing processes.

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

A type of material extrusion additive manufacturing process where a continuous filament of thermoplastic material is fed into a heated extruder and deposited on the current build layer. It is the trademarked name used for systems manufactured by the process inventor, Stratasys. Fused filament fabrication is the generic term.

Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF)

A type of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process where a laser is used to melt material on the top layer of a powder bed. Also called metal powder bed fusion or direct laser melting. Most often used to melt metal powder but is used with plastics as with selective laser sintering.

Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)

A type of direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process where a powder is directed into a high-energy laser beam and melted before it is deposited on the build layer. Also called laser powder forming.

Material Jetting

Any additive manufacturing process where build or support material is jetted through multiple small nozzles whose position is computer controlled to lay down material to create a layer. One of the ASTM defined standard categories for additive manufacturing processes.

Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)

A type of vat photopolymerization additive manufacturing where a laser is used to draw a path on the current layer, converting the liquid polymer into a solid. Stereolithography was the first commercially available additive manufacturing process.

Vat Polymerization

A class of additive manufacturing processes that utilizes the hardening of a photopolymer with ultraviolet light. A vat of liquid is filled with liquid photopolymer resin, and ultraviolet light is either traced on the build surface or projected on it. Stereolithography is the most common form of vat photopolymerization. The build layer can be on the top of the vat of liquid or the bottom. One of the ASTM defined standard categories for additive manufacturing processes.

We hope this new blog series will help to firm up your knowledge of the ever-evolving world of additive manufacturing. For a list of all of the key terms and definitions in the additive manufacturing world, please visit our new glossary page at https://www.3dprinting-glossary.com/. The glossary allows you to search by terms or download a PDF of the glossary in its entirety to use as a reference guide.

We also know that there are a ton of experts in our community with knowledge to share. If you notice a term missing from our glossary or an inaccurate/incomplete description, please visit the suggestions page at https://www.3dprinting-glossary.com/suggest-a-correction-clarification-or-new-term/ and drop us a note.

Subscribe to the PADT blog or check back soon for the next installment in our series of “Top Ten Terms to Know in Additive Manufacturing.” We also welcome your feedback or questions. Just drop us a line at here.

All Things Ansys 066: Simulation Automation & Optimization management with Ansys optiSLang

 

Published on: June 29th, 2020
With: Eric Miller & Josh Stout
Description:  

In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s systems application & support engineer Josh Stout to look at the optimization tool optiSLang. This tool helps automate simulation and optimization activities across various solution areas, such as autonomy, electrification, digital twins, and more, as well as how it enables users to capitalize on the benefits of enterprise simulation management.

If you would like to learn more, you can view the product brochure here: https://www.ansys.com/-/media/ansys/corporate/resourcelibrary/brochure/optislang-brochure.pdf.

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

Listen:
Subscribe:

@ANSYS #ANSYS

Combining Simulation with Additive Manufacturing to Optimize Product Design – Webinar

Advatech Pacific, a Phoenix-based aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1995, works to change the way engineering is conducted for the better by incorporating innovative technologies into its customer’s workflow. Based on the success of previous projects, Advatech is a strong proponent of using high-end simulation software such as Ansys to identify and evaluate the fine details of massive multi-body mechanical systems, whether through simple static analyses or tightly-coupled multiphysics computations.

Implementing additive manufacturing as an additional way to improve system design presented opportunities to cut back on tooling costs and reduce lead time for several candidate turbine-engine parts. Doing so would also alleviate the challenge of reproducing complex castings, a problem made increasingly difficult by the fact that many of the original casting providers are no longer in business.

Join PADT’s Lead Mechanical Engineer Doug Oatis, and Advatech Pacific’s Engineering Manager Matt Humrick for a discussion on Ansys tools with regards to additive manufacturing & topology optimization, and how Advatech Pacific was able to use them to drastically improve the efficiency of their design and manufacturing process.

Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

All Things Ansys 064: The Largest Virtual Engineering Simulation Trade Show Ever – Ansys Simulation World

 

Published on: June 1st, 2020
With: Eric Miller & Lynn Ledwith
Description:  

In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by Ansys CMO Lynn Ledwith, for a look at their digital trade show, Simulation world taking place Wednesday June 10th through Thursday June 11th.

The largest engineering simulation virtual event in the world, this event is a free online conference designed to inspire and educate executives, engineers, R&D, and manufacturing professionals about the transformative powers of engineering simulation and Ansys.

If you would like to learn more, visit simulation-world.com or register for free via https://bit.ly/2XjxrCN

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

Listen:
Subscribe:

@ANSYS #ANSYS

Fighting COVID-19 with Ansys Simulation – Webinar

Simulation has been and continues to be a powerful tool for helping to drive innovation in the medical industry. Everything from medical devices, to hospital equipment, and even pharmaceutical and clinical practices can benefit from the introduction of simulation technology. This is true now more than ever, as the we all are facing such turbulent times.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Ansys is striving to combat the spread of the coronavirus, by backing the ongoing initiatives of customers and partners working in the medical sphere. In order to support healthcare professionals, policy makers, and communities around the world in this endeavor, Ansys is sharing key insights gained from their own analyse, along with those of partners and other collaborators, regarding how to prevent future spread, and treat those already effected by the virus.

Join PADT’s Co-founder and Principal engineer Eric Miller, along with Marc Horner, Principal Healthcare Engineer at Ansys, for a discussion on what the company is doing to combat the virus, as well as a look at some models that effectively illustrate how the tools are being used.

Register Here

Designing Better Rocket Engines with Ansys – Webinar

In 2017 Colorado based company Ursa Major Technologies put together an expert team of designers and engineers to realize its vision of providing the microsatellite industry with the best rocket engines in the business. Utilizing Ansys simulation software, additive manufacturing, and modernizing staged combustion, the company successfully designed and built two liquid oxygen and kerosene engines and has a third engine in development.

With Ansys, Ursa Major Technologies is accomplishing design goals faster and more efficiently than ever before. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the company can run models with 30-40 unique parts to analyze entire turbo pumps in one simulation. Thrust analysis, which the company had previously done with 2D models, can now be done all in the Ansys CFX tool more cost-effectively.

Join PADT and Ursa Major Technologies for a brief overview of applications for Ansys in the aerospace industry, followed by an exploration of how they are using these simulation tools to better design and optimize the next generation of rocket engines.

Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

All Things Ansys 061: Bring Your Simulation Home with Ansys Cloud Solutions

 

Published on: April 20th, 2020
With: Eric Miller & Sina Ghods
Description:  

In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s Senior Simulation Support & Application Engineer Sina Ghods for a look at what is new with Ansys Cloud and how the tool provides access to higher fidelity models, faster turnaround, and multiple supported solvers, anywhere and anytime.

If you would like to learn more about the Ansys tool offering access to simulation on the go, check out our webinar on the topic here: https://bit.ly/3al5PjH

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

Listen:
Subscribe:

@ANSYS #ANSYS

Making Sense of DC IR Results in Ansys SIwave

In this article I will cover a Voltage Drop (DC IR) simulation in SIwave, applying realistic power delivery setup on a simple 4-layer PCB design. The main goal for this project is to understand what data we receive by running DC IR simulation, how to verify it, and what is the best way of using it.

And before I open my tools and start diving deep into this topic, I would like to thank Zachary Donathan for asking the right questions and having deep meaningful technical discussions with me on some related subjects. He may not have known, but he was helping me to shape up this article in my head!

Design Setup

There are many different power nets present on the board under test, however I will be focusing on two widely spread nets +1.2V and +3.3V. Both nets are being supplied through Voltage Regulator Module (VRM), which will be assigned as a Voltage Source in our analysis. After careful assessment of the board design, I identified the most critical components for the power delivery to include in the analysis as Current Sources (also known as ‘sinks’). Two DRAM small outline integrated circuit (SOIC) components D1 and D2 are supplied with +1.2V. While power net +3.3V provides voltage to two quad flat package (QFP) microcontrollers U20 and U21, mini PCIE connector, and hex Schmitt-Trigger inverter U1.

Fig. 1. Power Delivery Network setting for a DC IR analysis

Figure 1 shows the ‘floor plan’ of the DC IR analysis setup with 1.2V voltage path highlighted in yellow and 3.3V path highlighted in light blue.

Before we assign any Voltage and Current sources, we need to define pin groups for all nets +1.2V, +3.3V and GND for all PDN component mentioned above. Having pin groups will significantly simplify the reviewing process of the results. Also, it is generally a good practice to start the DC IR analysis from the ‘big picture’ to understand if certain component gets enough power from the VRM. If a given IC reports an acceptable level of voltage being delivered with a good margin, then we don’t need to dig deeper; we can instead focus on those which may not have good enough margins.

Once we have created all necessary pin groups, we can assign voltage and current sources. There are several ways of doing that (using wizard or manual), for this project we will use ‘Generate Circuit Element on Components’ feature to manually define all sources. Knowing all the components and having pin groups already created makes the assignment very straight-forward. All current sources draw different amount of current, as indicated in our setting, however all current sources have the same Parasitic Resistance (very large value) and all voltage source also have the same Parasitic Resistance (very small value). This is shown on Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Note: The type of the current source ‘Constant Voltage’ or ‘Distributed Current’ matters only if you are assigning a current source to a component with multiple pins on the same net, and since in this project we are working with pins groups, this setting doesn’t make difference in final results.

Fig. 2. Voltage and Current sources assigned
Fig. 3. Parasitic Resistance assignments for all voltage and current sources

For each power net we have created a voltage source on VRM and multiple current sources on ICs and the connector. All sources have a negative node on a GND net, so we have a good common return path. And in addition, we have assigned a negative node of both voltage sources (one for +1.2V and one for +3.3V) as our reference points for our analysis. So reported voltage values will be referenced to that that node as absolute 0V.

At this point, the DC IR setup is complete and ready for simulation.

Results overview and validation

When the DC IR simulation is finished, there is large amount of data being generated, therefore there are different ways of viewing results, all options are presented on Figure 4. In this article I will be primarily focusing on ‘Power Tree’ and ‘Element Data’. As an additional source if validation we may review the currents and voltages overlaying the design to help us to visualize the current flow and power distribution. Most of the time this helps to understand if our assumption of pin grouping is accurate.

Fig. 4. Options to view different aspects of DC IR simulated data

Power Tree

First let’s look at the Power Tree, presented on Figure 5. Two different power nets were simulated, +1.2V and +3.3V, each of which has specified Current Sources where the power gets delivered. Therefore, when we analyze DC IR results in the Power tree format, we see two ‘trees’, one for each power net. Since we don’t have any pins, which would get both 1.2V and 3.3V at the same time (not very physical example), we don’t have ‘common branches’ on these two ‘trees’.

Now, let’s dissect all the information present in this power tree (taking in consideration only one ‘branch’ for simplicity, although the logic is applicable for all ‘branches’):

  • We were treating both power nets +1.2V and +3.3V as separate voltage loops, so we have assigned negative nodes of each Voltage Source as a reference point. Therefore, we see the ‘GND’ symbol ((1) and (2)) for each voltage source. Now all voltage calculations will be referenced to that node as 0V for its specific tree.
  • Then we see the path from Voltage Source to Current Source, the value ΔV shows the Voltage Drop in that path (3). Ultimately, this is the main value power engineers usually are interested in during this type of analysis. If we subtract ΔV from Vout we will get the ‘Actual Voltage’ delivered to the specific current source positive pin (1.2V – 0.22246V = 0.977V). That value reported in the box for the Current Source (4). Technically, the same voltage drop value is reported in the column ‘IR Drop’, but in this column we get more details – we see what the percentage of the Vout is being dropped. Engineers usually specify the margin value of the acceptable voltage drop as a percentage of Vout, and in our experiment we have specified 15%, as reported in column ‘Specification’. And we see that 18.5% is greater than 15%, therefore we get ‘Fail_I_&_V’ results (6) for that Current Source.
  • Regarding the current – we have manually specified the current value for each Current Source. Current values in Figure 2 are the same as in Figure 5. Also, we can specify the margin for the current to report pass or fail. In our example we assigned 108A as a current at the Current Source (5), while 100A is our current limit (4). Therefore, we also got failed results for the current as well.
  • As mentioned earlier, we assigned current values for each Current Source, but we didn’t set any current values for the Voltage Source. This is because the tool calculates how much current needs to be assigned for the Voltage Source, based on the value at the Current Sources. In our case we have 3 Current Sources 108A, 63A, 63A (5). The sum of these three values is 234A, which is reported as a current at the Voltage Source (7). Later we will see that this value is being used to calculate output power at the Voltage Source.  
Fig. 5. DC IR simulated data viewed as a ‘Power Tree’

Element Data

This option shows us results in the tabular representation. It lists many important calculated data points for specific objects, such as bondwire, current sources, all vias associated with the power distribution network, voltage probes, voltage sources.

Let’s continue reviewing the same power net +1.2V and the power distribution to CPU1 component as we have done for Power Tree (Figure 5). The same way we will be going over the details in point-by-point approach:

  • First and foremost, when we look at the information for Current Sources, we see a ‘Voltage’ value, which may be confusing. The value reported in this table is 0.7247V (8), which is different from the reported value of 0.977V in Power Tree on Figure 5 (4). The reason for the difference is that reported voltage value were calculated at different locations. As mentioned earlier, the reported voltage in the Power Tree is the voltage at the positive pin of the Current Source. The voltage reported in Element Data is the voltage at the negative pin of the Current Source, which doesn’t include the voltage drop across the ground plane of the return path.

To verify the reported voltage values, we can place Voltage Probes (under circuit elements). Once we do that, we will need to rerun the simulation in order to get the results for the probes:

  1. Two terminals of the ‘VPROBE_1’ attached at the positive pin of Voltage Source and at the positive pin of the Current Source. This probe should show us the voltage difference between VRM and IC, which also the same as reported Voltage Drop ΔV. And as we can see ‘VPROBE_1’ = 222.4637mV (13), when ΔV = 222.464mV (3). Correlated perfectly!
  2. Two terminals of the ‘VPROBE_GND’ attached to the negative pin of the Current Source and negative pin of the Voltage Source. The voltage shown by this probe is the voltage drop across the ground plane.

If we have 1.2V at the positive pin of VRM, then voltage drops 222.464mV across the power plane, so the positive pin of IC gets supplied with 0.977V. Then the voltage at the Current Source 0.724827V (8) being drawn, leaving us with (1.2V – 0.222464V – 0.724827V) = 0.252709V at the negative pin of the Current Source. On the return path the voltage drops again across the ground plane 252.4749mV (14) delivering back at the negative pin of VRM (0.252709V – 0.252475V) = 234uV. This is the internal voltage drop in the Voltage Source, as calculated as output current at VRM 234A (7) multiplied by Parasitic Resistance 1E-6Ohm (Figure 3) at VRM. This is Series R Voltage (11)

  • Parallel R Current of the Current source is calculated as Voltage 724.82mV (8) divided by Parasitic Resistance of the Current Source (Figure 3) 5E+7 Ohm = 1.44965E-8 (9)
  • Current of the Voltage Source report in the Element Data 234A (10) is the same value as reported in the Power Tree (sum of all currents of Current Sources for the +1.2V power net) = 234A (7). Knowing this value of the current we can multiple it by Parasitic Resistance of the Voltage Source (Figure 3) 1E-6 Ohm = (234A * 1E-6Ohm) = 234E-6V, which is equal to reported Series R Voltage (11). And considering that the 234A is the output current of the Voltage Source, we can multiple it by output voltage Vout = 1.2V to get a Power Output = (234A * 1.2V) = 280.85W (12)
Fig. 6. DC IR simulated data viewed in the table format as ‘Element Data’

In addition to all provided above calculations and explanations, the video below in Figure 7 highlights all the key points of this article.

Fig. 7. Difference between reporting Voltage values in Power Tree and Element Data

Conclusion

By carefully reviewing the Power Tree and Element Data reporting options, we can determine many important decisions about the power delivery network quality, such as how much voltage gets delivered to the Current Source; how much voltage drop is on the power net and on the ground net, etc. More valuable information can be extracted from other DC IR results options, such as ‘Loop Resistance’, ‘Path Resistance’, ‘RL table’, ‘Spice Netlist’, full ‘Report’. However, all these features deserve a separate topic.

As always, if you would like to receive more information related to this topic or have any questions please reach out to us at info@padtinc.com.

All Things Ansys 060: Tips For Making Working From Home More Productive

 

Published on: April 6th, 2020
With: Eric Miller & Matt Sutton
Description:  

In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s seasoned expert at working with Ansys from home Matt Sutton for a quick discussion on tips and best practices that make working from home more productive and effective.

If you would like to learn more about how PADT and Ansys can help you to better run your simulation from your home office, check out our webinar on the topic here: https://bit.ly/3dSa8WN

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

Listen:
Subscribe:

@ANSYS #ANSYS

Efficient and Accurate Simulation of Antenna Arrays in HFSS

Unit-cell in HFSS

HFSS offers different method of creating and simulating a large array. The explicit method, shown in Figure 1(a) might be the first method that comes to our mind. This is where you create the exact CAD of the array and solve it. While this is the most accurate method of simulating an array, it is computationally extensive. This method may be non-feasible for the initial design of a large array. The use of unit cell (Figure 1(b)) and array theory helps us to start with an estimate of the array performance by a few assumptions. Finite Array Domain Decomposition (or FADDM) takes advantage of unit cell simplicity and creates a full model using the meshing information generated in a unit cell. In this blog we will review the creation of unit cell. In the next blog we will explain how a unit cell can be used to simulate a large array and FADDM.

Fig. 1 (a) Explicit Array
Fig. 1 (b) Unit Cell
Fig. 1 (c) Finite Array Domain Decomposition (FADDM)

In a unit cell, the following assumptions are made:

  • The pattern of each element is identical.
  • The array is uniformly excited in amplitude, but not necessarily in phase.
  • Edge affects and mutual coupling are ignored
Fig. 2 An array consisting of elements amplitude and phases can be estimated with array theory, assuming all elements have the same amplitude and element radiation patterns. In unit cell simulation it is assumed all magnitudes (An’s) are equal (A) and the far field of each single element is equal.

A unit cell works based on Master/Slave (or Primary/Secondary) boundary around the cell. Master/Slave boundaries are always paired. In a rectangular cell you may use the new Lattice Pair boundary that is introduced in Ansys HFSS 2020R1. These boundaries are means of simulating an infinite array and estimating the performance of a relatively large arrays. The use of unit cell reduces the required RAM and solve time.

Primary/Secondary (Master/Slave) (or P/S) boundaries can be combined with Floquet port, radiation or PML boundary to be used in an infinite array or large array setting, as shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 3 Unit cell can be terminated with (a) radiation boundary, (b) Floquet port, (c) PML boundary, or combination of them.

To create a unit cell with P/S boundary, first start with a single element with the exact dimensions of the cell. The next step is creating a vacuum or airbox around the cell. For this step, set the padding in the location of P/S boundary to zero. For example, Figure 4 shows a microstrip patch antenna that we intend to create a 2D array based on this model. The array is placed on the XY plane. An air box is created around the unit cell with zero padding in X and Y directions.

Fig. 4 (a) A unit cell starts with a single element with the exact dimensions as it appears in the lattice
Fig. 4 (b) A vacuum box is added around it

You notice that in this example the vacuum box is larger than usual size of quarter wavelength that is usually used in creating a vacuum region around the antenna. We will get to calculation of this size in a bit, for now let’s just assign a value or parameter to it, as it will be determined later. The next step is to define P/S to generate the lattice. In AEDT 2020R1 this boundary is under “Coupled” boundary. There are two methods to create P/S: (1) Lattice Pair, (2) Primary/Secondary boundary.

Lattice Pair

The Lattice Pair works best for square lattices. It automatically assigns the primary and secondary boundaries. To assign a lattice pair boundary select the two sides that are supposed to create infinite periodic cells, right-click->Assign Boundary->Coupled->Lattice Pair, choose a name and enter the scan angles. Note that scan angles can be assigned as parameters. This feature that is introduced in 2020R1 does not require the user to define the UV directions, they are automatically assigned.

Fig. 5 The lattice pair assignment (a) select two lattice walls
Fig. 5 (b) Assign the lattice pair boundary
Fig. 5 (c) After, right-click and choosing assign boundary > choose Lattice Pair
Fig. 5 (d) Phi and Theta scan angles can be assigned as parameters

Primary/Secondary

Primary/Secondary boundary is the same as what used to be called Master/Slave boundary. In this case, each Secondary (Slave) boundary should be assigned following a Primary (Master) boundary UV directions. First choose the side of the cell that Primary boundary. Right-click->Assign Boundary->Coupled->Primary. In Primary Boundary window define U vector. Next select the secondary wall, right-click->Assign Boundary->Couple->Secondary, choose the Primary Boundary and define U vector exactly in the same direction as the Primary, add the scan angles (the same as Primary scan angles)

Fig. 6 Primary and secondary boundaries highlights.

Floquet Port and Modes Calculator

Floquet port excites and terminates waves propagating down the unit cell. They are similar to waveguide modes. Floquet port is always linked to P/S boundaries. Set of TE and TM modes travel inside the cell. However, keep in mind that the number of modes that are absorbed by the Floquet port are determined by the user. All the other modes are short-circuited back into the model. To assign a Floquet port two major steps should be taken:

Defining Floquet Port

Select the face of the cell that you like to assign the Floquet port. This is determined by the location of P/S boundary. The lattice vectors A and B directions are defined by the direction of lattice (Figure 7).

Fig. 7 Floquet port on top of the cell is defined based on UV direction of P/S pairs

The number of modes to be included are defined with the help of Modes Calculator. In the Mode Setup tab of the Floquet Port window, choose a high number of modes (e.g. 20) and click on Modes Calculator. The Mode Table Calculator will request your input of Frequency and Scan Angles. After selecting those, a table of modes and their attenuation using dB/length units are created. This is your guide in selecting the height of the unit cell and vaccume box. The attenation multiplied by the height of the unit cell (in the project units, defined in Modeler->Units) should be large enough to make sure the modes are attenuated enough so removing them from the calcuatlion does not cause errors. If the unit cell is too short, then you will see many modes are not attenuated enough. The product of the attenuatin and height of the airbox should be at least 50 dB. After the correct size for the airbox is calcualted and entered, the model with high attenuation can be removed from the Floquet port definition.

The 3D Refinement tab is used to control the inclusion of the modes in the 3D refinement of the mesh. It is recommended not to select them for the antenna arrays.

Fig. 8 (Left) Determining the scan angles for the unit cell, (Right) Modes Calculator showing the Attenuation

In our example, Figure 8 shows that the 5th mode has an attenuation of 2.59dB/length. The height of the airbox is around 19.5mm, providing 19.5mm*2.59dB/mm=50.505dB attenuation for the 5th mode. Therefore, only the first 4 modes are kept for the calculations. If the height of the airbox was less than 19.5mm, we would need to increase the height so accordingly for an attenuation of at least 50dB.

Radiation Boundary

A simpler alternative for Floquet port is radiation boundary. It is important to note that the size of the airbox should still be kept around the same size that was calculated for the Floquet port, therefore, higher order modes sufficiently attenuated. In this case the traditional quarter wavelength padding might not be adequate.

Fig. 9 Radiation boundary on top of the unit cell

Perfectly Matched Layer

Although using radiation boundary is much simpler than Floquet port, it is not accurate for large scan angles. It can be a good alternative to Floquet port only if the beam scanning is limited to small angles. Another alternative to Floquet port is to cover the cell by a layer of PML. This is a good compromise and provides very similar results to Floquet port models. However, the P/S boundary need to surround the PML layer as well, which means a few additional steps are required. Here is how you can do it:

  1. Reduce the size of the airbox* slightly, so after adding the PML layer, the unit cell height is the same as the one that was generated using the Modes Calculation. (For example, in our model airbox height was 19mm+substrte thickness, the PML height was 3mm, so we reduced the airbox height to 16mm).
  2. Choose the top face and add PML boundary.
  3. Select each side of the airbox and create an object from that face (Figure 10).
  4. Select each side of the PML and create objects from those faces (Figure 10).
  5. Select the two faces that are on the same plane from the faces created from airbox and PML and unite them to create a side wall (Figure 10).
  6. Then assign P/S boundary to each pair of walls (Figure 10).

*Please note for this method, an auto-size “region” cannot be used, instead draw a box for air/vacuum box. The region does not let you create the faces you need to combine with PML faces.

Fig. 10 Selecting two faces created from airbox and PML and uniting them to assign P/S boundaries

The advantage of PML termination over Floquet port is that it is simpler and sometimes faster calculation. The advantage over Radiation Boundary termination is that it provides accurate results for large scan angles. For better accuracy the mesh for the PML region can be defined as length based.

Seed the Mesh

To improve the accuracy of the PML model further, an option is to use length-based mesh. To do this select the PML box, from the project tree in Project Manager window right-click on Mesh->Assign Mesh Operation->On Selection->Length Based. Select a length smaller than lambda/10.

Fig. 11 Using element length-based mesh refinement can improve the accuracy of PML design

Scanning the Angle

In phased array simulation, we are mostly interested in the performance of the unit cell and array at different scan angles. To add the scanning option, the phase of P/S boundary should be defined by project or design parameters. The parameters can be used to run a parametric sweep, like the one shown in Figure 12. In this example the theta angle is scanned from 0 to 60 degrees.

Fig. 12 Using a parametric sweep, the scanned patterns can be generated

Comparing PML and Floquet Port with Radiation Boundary

To see the accuracy of the radiation boundary vs. PML and Floquet Port, I ran the simulations for scan angles up to 60 degrees for a single element patch antenna. Figure 13 shows that the accuracy of the Radiation boundary drops after around 15 degrees scanning. However, PML and Floquet port show similar performance.

Fig. 13 Comparison of radiation patterns using PML (red), Floquet Port (blue), and Radiation boundary (orange).

S Parameters

To compare the accuracy, we can also check the S parameters. Figure 14 shows the comparison of active S at port 1 for PML and Floquet port models. Active S parameters were used since the unit cell antenna has two ports. Figure 15 shows how S parameters compare for the model with the radiation boundary and the one with the Floquet port.

Fig. 14 Active S parameter comparison for different scan angles, PML vs. Floquet Port model.
Fig. 15 Active S parameter comparison for different scan angles, Radiation Boundary vs. Floquet Port model.

Conclusion

The unit cell definition and options on terminating the cell were discussed here. Stay tuned. In the next blog we discuss how the unit cell is utilized in modeling antenna arrays.

All Things Ansys 059: Elements, Contact & Solver Updates in Ansys MAPDL 2020 R1

 

Published on: March 23rd, 2020
With: Eric Miller, Ted Harris, Alex Grishin & Joe Woodward
Description:  

In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s Ted Harris, Alex Grishin, and Joe Woodward to discuss their favorite features in the MAPDL Updates in Ansys 2020 R1.

If you would like to learn more about this topic, you can view PADT’s webinar covering these updates here: https://bit.ly/2WD88vt

Additionally, if you would like to take part in the survey mentioned at the start of the episode click the link here: https://bit.ly/3biWkCp

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

Listen:
Subscribe:

@ANSYS #ANSYS