Join PADT in Welcoming Jeff Wells, Business Development Manager, Engineering Services

Here at PADT, we pride ourselves on our ability to make our customers’ ideas for innovation practical and get them to market. No matter how complex the challenge is, we have the engineering expertise and technology tools to work with our customers and deliver tailored solutions to meet their needs. And for every solution we create, there’s a business development team leading the partnership with our customers. We’re excited to welcome the newest leader of this team, Business Development Manager for Engineering Services, Jeff Wells.

“PADT’s engineering services are thriving behind the work of our outstanding team,” said Eric Miller, co-founder and principal, PADT. “Jeff adds a tremendous amount of experience as both an engineer and a business development leader. His knowledge of the industry and the community will elevate our ability to attract new and innovative customers.”

To help PADT improve its market position in engineering services and product development, Wells will be responsible for building new customer relationships and seeking new opportunities to solve complex challenges. His focus will be on serving customers in a wide variety of industries, including aerospace and defense, medical, and industrial.

“Throughout my many years in engineering here in Arizona, I’ve been keenly aware of the outstanding services provided by PADT,” said Wells. “The company’s reputation and the wonderful people I’ve gotten to know over the years made it an easy decision to join the team. I look forward to contributing to the company’s strategy for growing its engineering services department.”

Jeff and his Family in New Zealand

Wells brings nearly 30 years of engineering, business development, and sales experience to the position. He joins PADT after spending the past five years in the director of business development role at CollabraTech Solutions. Wells joined CollabraTech early in the company’s lifecycle and helped grow the gas and chemical delivery product company from a few million dollars in revenue to over $14 million, by diversifying their customer base, the markets they served and the projects they pursued.

Early in his career, Wells worked as an engineer designing a wide variety of products from parts for Airbus aircraft engines to laser part marking kiosks and semiconductor capital equipment. He quickly realized his propensity for combining his engineering expertise with his communication skills, and in the late ‘90s, he began his career in business development. Wells worked at Advanced Integration Technologies for 10 years as a business development engineer and business development manager. He later worked closely with senior leadership on business development operations at Ultra Clean Technology and led business development for Foresight Processing.

Wells holds a Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering from Arizona State University (ASU). He and his wife, Kate Wells, CEO of the Phoenix Children’s Museum, have been married for 27 years and have two daughters who attend school at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Barrett, the Honors College at ASU. In their free time, Wells and his family enjoy traveling. A decade ago, Jeff and his wife took their two daughters out of school for 14 months backpacking around the globe, visiting 22 countries. Wells also enjoys being outdoors hiking, playing sports, snowboarding and water skiing.

You can find a writeup in the Phoenix Business Journal here and his LinkedIn profile is here.

To learn more about PADT’s engineering service capabilities and to connect with Jeff Wells, please visit www.padtinc.com/services  or call us at 1-800-293-7238.

New 3D Design Capabilities Available in ANSYS 2019 R3 – Webinar

The ANSYS 3D Design family of products enables CAD modeling and simulation for all design engineers. Since the demands on today’s design engineer to build optimized, lighter and smarter products are greater than ever, using the appropriate design tools is more important than ever.

Rapidly explore ideas, iterate and innovate with ANSYS Discovery 3D design software, evaluate more concepts and rapidly gauge design performance through virtual design testing as you delve deeper into your design’s details, with the same results accuracy as ANSYS flagship products – when and where you need it.

Join PADT’s Training & Support Application Engineer, Robert McCathren for a look at the new 3D design capabilities available in ANSYS 2019 R3 for ANSYS Discovery AIM, Live, and SpaceClaim. These new updates include:

Mass flow outlets

Transient studies with time varying inputs

Structural beam support

Linear buckling support

Physics-aware meshing improvements

Mesh failure localization and visualization improvements

And much more

Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

All Thing ANSYS 050: Updates and Enhancements in ANSYS Mechanical 2019 R3

 

Published on: November 4th, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Joe Woodward, & Ted Harris
Description:  

In this episode, your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s Specialist Mechanical Engineer/Lead Trainer Joe Woodward, and Simulation Support Manager Ted Harris, for a discussion on what’s new in the mechanical release for ANSYS 2019 R3, as well as a look at their favorite features. This includes a focus on updates and enhancements to improve ease of use, reduce set-up time, and provide more valuable solutions.

If you would like to learn more about what this release is capable of, check out our webinar on the topic here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/376304

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

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Predicting & Controlling Environmental Pollution with ANSYS Simulation – Webinar

Environmental pollution has been a fact of life for many centuries, though it became a real issue after the start of the industrial revolution. An estimated 6.5 million premature deaths have been linked to air pollution every year.

In order to properly combat this growing issue, the world’s leading minds have turned to a more effective tool for environmental analysis; numerical simulation. Computational fluid dynamics has proven to be a powerful tool when it comes to predicting and controlling air, water, and noise pollution.

Join PADT’s CFD Team Lead Engineer Clinton Smith to learn how ANSYS fluid mechanics solutions provide insight and detailed understanding of the formation and dispersion of pollutants such as NOx, SOx, CO & Soot as well as effective ways for modelling pollution control equipment such as ESP’s, bag filters, and wastewater treatment plants.

Register Here

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All Things ANSYS 048: Topology Optimization & Simulation for Additive Manufacturing in ANSYS 2019 R3

 

Published on: October 7th, 2019
With: Eric Miller & Doug Oatis
Description:  

In this episode, your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s simulation support & application engineer Doug Oatis for a discussion on what is new in ANSYS 2019 R3 with regards to tools and applications for topology optimization and additive manufacturing.

If you would like to learn more about what’s new in this latest release, check out our webinar on the topic here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/372133?

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

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Frequency Dependent Material Definition in ANSYS HFSS

Electromagnetic models, especially those covering a frequency bandwidth, require a frequency dependent definition of dielectric materials. Material definitions in ANSYS Electronics Desktop can include frequency dependent curves for use in tools such as HFSS and Q3D. However, there are 5 different models to choose from, so you may be asking: What’s the difference?

In this blog, I will cover each of the options in detail. At the end, I will also show how to activate the automatic setting for applying a frequency dependent model that satisfies the Kramers-Kronig conditions for causality and requires a single frequency definition.

Background

Recalling that the dielectric properties of material are coming from the material’s polarization

(1)

where D is the electric flux density, E is the electric field intensity, and P is the polarization vector. The material polarization can be written as the convolution of a general dielectric response (pGDR) and the electric field intensity.

(2)

The dielectric polarization spectrum is characterized by three dispersion relaxation regions α, β, and γ for low (Hz), medium (KHz to MHz) and high frequencies (GHz and above). For example, in the case of human tissue, tissue permittivity increases and effective conductivity decreases with the increase in frequency [1].

Fig. 1. α, β and γ regions of dielectric permittivity

Each of these regions can be modeled with a relaxation time constant

(3)

where τ is the relaxation time.

(4)

The well-known Debye expression can be found by use of spectral representation of complex permittivity (ε(ω)) and it is given as:

(5)
(6)

where ε is the permittivity at frequencies where ωτ>>1, εs is the permittivity at ωτ>>1, and j2=-1. The magnitude of the dispersion is ∆ε = εs.

The multiple pole Debye dispersion equation has also been used to characterize dispersive dielectric properties [2]

(7)

In particular, the complexity of the structure and composition of biological materials may cause that each dispersion region be broadened by multiple combinations. In that case a distribution parameter is introduced and the Debye model is modified to what is known as Cole-Cole model

(8)

where αn, the distribution parameter, is a measure of broadening of the dispersion.

Gabriel et. al [3] measured a number of human tissues in the range of 10 Hz – 100 GHz at the body temperature (37℃). This data is freely available to the public by IFAC [4].

Frequency Dependent Material Definition in HFSS and Q3D

In HFSS you can assign conductivity either directly as bulk conductivity, or as a loss tangent. This provides flexibility, but you should only provide the loss once. The solver uses the loss values just as they are entered.

To define a user-defined material choose Tools->Edit Libraries->Materials (Fig. 2). In Edit Libraries window either find your material from the library or choose “Add Material”.

Fig. 2. Edit Libraries screen shot.

To add frequency dependence information, choose “Set Frequency Dependency” from the “View/Edit Material” window, this will open “Frequency Dependent Material Setup Option” that provides five different ways of defining materials properties (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. (Left) View/Edit Material window, (Right) Frequency Dependent Material Setup Option.

Before choosing a method of defining the material please note [5]:

  • The Piecewise Linear and Frequency Dependent Data Points models apply to both the electric and magnetic properties of the material. However, they do not guarantee that the material satisfies causality conditions, and so they should only be used for frequency-domain applications.
  • The Debye, Multipole Debye and Djordjevic-Sarkar models apply only to the electrical properties of dielectric materials. These models satisfy the Kramers-Kronig conditions for causality, and so are preferred for applications (such as TDR or Full-Wave SPICE) where time-domain results are needed. They also include an automatic Djordjevic-Sarkar model to ensure causal solutions when solving frequency sweeps for simple constant material properties.
  • HFSS and Q3D can interpolate the property’s values at the desired frequencies during solution generation.

Piecewise Linear

This option is the simplest way to define frequency dependence. It divides the frequency band into three regions. Therefore, two frequencies are needed as input. Lower Frequency and Upper Frequency, and for each frequency Relative Permittivity, Relative Permeability, Dielectric Loss Tangent, and Magnetic Loss Tangent are entered as the input. Between these corner frequencies, both HFSS and Q3D linearly interpolate the material properties; above and below the corner frequencies, HFSS and Q3D extrapolate the property values as constants (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Piecewise Linear Frequency Dependent Material Input window.

Once these values are entered, 4 different data sets are created ($ds_epsr1, $ds_mur1, $ds_tande1, $ds_tandm1). These data sets now can be edited. To do so choose Project ->Data sets, and choose the data set you like to edit and click Edit (Fig. 5). This data set can be modified with additional points if desired (Fig. 6).

Fig. 5. (Left) Project data set selection, (right) defined data set for the material.
Fig. 6. A sample data set.

Frequency Dependent

Frequency Dependent material definition is similar to Piecewise Linear method, with one difference. After selecting this option, Enter Frequency Dependent Data Point opens that gives the user the option to use which material property is defined as a dataset, and for each one of them a dataset should be defined. The datasets can be defined ahead of time or on-the-fly. Any number of data points may be entered. There is also the option of importing or editing frequency dependent data sets for each material property (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7. This window provides options of choosing which material property is frequency dependent and enter the data set associated with it.

Djordjevic-Sarkar

This model was developed initially for FR-4, commonly used in printed circuit boards and packages [6]. In fact, it uses an infinite distribution of poles to model the frequency response, and in particular the nearly constant loss tangent, of these materials.

(9)

where ε is the permittivity at very high frequency,  is the conductivity at low (DC) frequency,  j2=-1, ωA is the lower angular frequency (below this frequency permittivity approaches its DC value), ωB is the upper angular frequency (above this frequency permittivity quickly approaches its high-frequency permittivity). The magnitude of the dispersion is ∆ε = εs-ε∞.

Both HFSS and Q3D allow the user to enter the relative permittivity and loss tangent at a single measurement frequency. The relative permittivity and conductivity at DC may optionally be entered. Writing permittivity in the form of complex permittivity [7]

(10)
(11)

Therefore, at the measurement frequency one can separate real and imaginary parts

(12)
(13)

where

(14)

Therefore, the parameters of Djordjevic-Sarkar can be extracted, if the DC conductivity is known

(15)

If DC conductivity is not known, then a heuristic approximation is De = 10 εtan δ1.

The window shown in Fig. 8 is to enter the measurement values.

Fig. 8. The required values to calculate permittivity using Djordjevic-Sarkar model.

Debye Model

As explained in the background section single pole Debye model is a good approximation of lossy dispersive dielectric materials within a limited range of frequency. In some materials, up to about a 10 GHz limit, ion and dipole polarization dominate and a single pole Debye model is adequate.

(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)

The Debye parameters can be calculated from the two measurements [7]

(21)

Both HFSS and Q3D allow you to specify upper and lower measurement frequencies, and the loss tangent and relative permittivity values at these frequencies. You may optionally enter the permittivity at high frequency, the DC conductivity, and a constant relative permeability (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9. The required values for Single Pole Debye model.

Multipole Debye Model

For Multipole Debye Model multiple frequency measurements are required. The input window provides entry points for the data of relative permittivity and loss tangent versus frequency. Based on this data the software dynamically generates frequency dependent expressions for relative permittivity and loss tangent through the Multipole Debye Model. The input dialog plots these expressions together with your input data through the linear interpolations (Fig. 10).

Fig. 10. The required values for Multipole Debye model.

Cole Cole Material Model

The Cole Cole Model is not an option in the material definition, however, it is possible to generate the frequency dependent datasets and use Frequency Dependent option to upload these values. In fact ANSYS Human Body Models are built based on the data from IFAC database and Frequency Dependent option.

Visualization

Frequency-dependent properties can be plotted in a few different ways. In View/Edit Material dialog right-click and choose View Property vs. Frequency. In addition, the dialogs for each of the frequency dependent material setup options contain plots displaying frequency dependence of the properties.

You can also double-click the material property name to view the plot.

Automatically use causal materials

As mentioned at the beginning, there is a simple automatic method for applying a frequency dependent model in HFSS. Select the menu item HFSS->Design Setting, and check the box next to Automatically use casual materials under Lossy Dielectrics tab.

Fig. 11. Causal material can be enforced in HFSS Design Settings.

This option will automatically apply the Djordjevic-Sarkar model described above to objects with constant material permittivity greater than 1 and dielectric loss tangent greater than 0. Keep in mind, not only is this feature simple to use, but the Djordjevic-Sarkar model satisfies the Kramers-Kronig conditions for causality which is particularly preferred for wideband applications and where time-domain results will also be needed. Please note that if the assigned material is already frequency dependent, automatic creation of frequency dependent lossy materials is ignored.

If you would like more information or have any questions about ANSYS products please email info@padtinc.com

References

  • D.T. Price, MEMS and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for non-invasive measurement of cells, in MEMS for Biomedical Applications, 2012, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/materials-science/electrical-impedance
  • W. D. Hurt, “Multiterm Debye dispersion relations for permittivity of muscle,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng, vol. 32, pp. 60-64, 1985.
  • S. Gabriel, R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel. “The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues.” Physics in Medicine & Biology, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 2271, 1996.
  • Dielectric Properties of Body Tissues in the Frequency Range 10 Hz – 100 GHz, http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/.
  • ANSYS HFSS Online Help, Nov. 2013, Assigning Materials.
  • A. R. Djordjevic, R. D. Biljic, V. D. Likar-Smiljani, and T. K. Sarkar, “Wideband frequency-domain characterization of FR-4 and time-domain causality,” IEEE Trans. on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 43, no. 4, p. 662-667, Nov. 2001.
  • ANSYS HFSS Online Help, 2019, Materials Technical Notes.

Useful Links

Piecewise Linear Input

Debye Model Input

Multipole Debye Model Input

Djordjevic-Sarkar

Enter Frequency Dependent Data Points

Modifying Datasets.

Topology Optimization & Simulation for Additive Manufacturing in ANSYS 2019 R3 – Webinar

ANSYS offers a complete simulation workflow for additive manufacturing (AM) that allows you to transition your R&D efforts for metal additive manufacturing into a successful manufacturing operation. This best-in-class solution for additive manufacturing enables simulation at every step in your AM process. It will help you optimize material configurations and machine and parts setup before you begin to print. As a result, you’ll greatly reduce — and potentially eliminate — the physical process of trial-and- error testing.

Through the use of ANSYS tools such as Additive Prep, Print, and Science, paired with topology optimization capabilities in ANSYS Mechanical Workbench, the need for physical process of trial-and-error testing has been greatly reduced.

Join PADT’s Simulation Support and Application Engineer Doug Oatis for an exploration of the ANSYS tools that help to optimize additive manufacturing, and what new capabilities are available for them when upgrading to ANSYS 2019 R3. This presentation includes updates regarding:

  • Level-set based topology optimization
  • The export of build files directly to AM machines
  • Switching between viewing STL supports, mesh, or element densities
  • Multiple support being made in a single simulation (volume-less & solid supports)
  • And much more

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You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

All Things ANSYS 047: Mechanical Solver, Element, & Contact Enhancements in ANSYS 2019 R3

 

Published on: September 24th, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Joe Woodward, Doug Oatis, & Ted Harris
Description:  

In this episode, your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s simulation support manager Ted Harris, specialist mechanical engineer Joe Woodward, and simulation support & application engineer Doug Oatis for a discussion on what is new in ANSYS 2019 R3 with regards to the mechanical solver, element, and contact enhancements.

If you would like to learn more about what’s new in this latest mechanical release, check out our webinar on the topic here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/371263

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

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Mechanical Solver, Element, & Contact Enhancements in ANSYS 2019 R3 – Webinar

ANSYS 2019 R3 brings a whole host of improvements to various mechanical features, designed to enhance overall optimization and ease of use. Key updates such as those made in regards to the mechanical solver, MAPDL elements, and contact modeling capabilities help make this release essential for performing effective analyses, and deriving valuable results from said analyses. 

For example, being able to simulate contact correctly means that engineers can simulate the change in load paths when parts deform and confidently predict how assemblies will behave in the real world.

Join PADT’s Simulation Support Manager Ted Harris, for a look at the latest mechanical solver, element, and contact updates available in ANSYS 2019 R3. This presentation includes enhancements made for:

Improved scaling for various solvers

Surface stress evaluation for axisymmetric solid elements

Piezoelectric analyses

Nonlinear radial gap elements

And much more

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All Things ANSYS 046: The Founding of CFX

 

Published on: September 9th, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Paul Galpin, & Brad Hutchinson
Description:  

In this episode, your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by Paul Galpin and Brad Hutchinson, two founders of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation tool now owned by ANSYS, called CFX. They discuss how they initially got into the world of simulation, the current state of CFD, and what is important to be aware of as it continues to grow and develop.

If you would like to learn more about what’s new in the latest version of CFX, check out PADT’s webinar on fluids updates in ANSYS 2019 R3 here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/369903

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

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Fluids Innovations in ANSYS 2019 R3 – Webinar

Products such as ANSYS Fluent, CFX, and Ensight work together in a constantly improving tool kit that is developed to provide ease of use improvements for engineers simulating fluid flows and the impact those flows have on physical models. 

Fluids simulation users will find that ANSYS 2019 R3 includes many enhancements that further simplify the user experience and broaden use to new applications. The new Fluent experience has been improved so you can enjoy more CFD in less time, with less training.

Join PADT’s Simulation Support and Application Engineer, Sina Ghods, for a look at what is new and improved for fluids simulation tools in ANSYS 2019 R3. This presentation includes updates regarding: 

  • Usability Enhancements
  • Watertight Geometry Workflow
  • TurboGrid & BladeEditor
  • Meshing Enhancements
  • And many more innovative capabilities

Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

Video Interview: 3 Roles for Simulation in Additive Manufacturing

While attending the 2019 RAPID + TCT conference in Detroit this year, I was honored to be interviewed by Stephanie Hendrixson, the Senior Editor of Additive Manufacturing magazine and website. We had a great chat, covering a lot of topics. I do tend to go on, so it turned into two videos.

In the first video, we chat about how simulation can improve the use of Additive Manufacturing for production hardware. We go over the three uses: optimizing the part geometry to take advantage of AM’s freedom, verifying that the part you are about to create will survive and perform as expected, and modeling the build process itself.

You can read the article and watch the video here on the Additive Manufacturing website. Or you can watch it here:

If you have any questions about how you can leverage simulation to add value to your AM processes, contact PADT or shoot me an email at eric.miller@padtinc.com.

For the second interview, we focus on Topological Optimization, Generative design, and the difference between the two. Check that out here.

All Things ANSYS 045: Using Simulation to Disrupt the RF Antenna Industry

 

Published on: August 26th, 2019
With: Eric Miller & Stefan O’Dougherty
Description:  

In this episode, your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by Stefan O’Dougherty of FreeFall Moving Data to discuss the use of ANSYS simulation tools to drive the design of their unique RF antenna concept.

To learn more about FreeFall and see their product in action, click the link below and view the Wired article discussed in the interview portion of today’s episode: https://www.wired.com/story/new-space-telescopes-could-look-like-giant-beach-balls/

If you would like to learn more about what’s available in the latest release of ANSYS HFSS check out PADT’s webinar on the subject here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/361278

If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you!

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High Frequency Electromagnetic Updates in ANSYS 2019 R2 – Webinar

HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) employs versatile solvers and an intuitive GUI to provide unparalleled performance, as well as deep insight, into a wide variety of 3D electromagnetic (EM) problems. ANSYS HFSS is the premier EM tool for R&D and virtual design prototyping. It reduces design cycle time and boosts your product’s reliability and performance. 

The ANSYS HFSS simulation suite consists of a comprehensive set of solvers to address diverse electromagnetic problems, ranging in detail and scale from passive IC components to extremely large-scale EM analyses. Its reliable automatic adaptive mesh refinement allows users to focus on the design instead of spending time determining and creating the best mesh.

Join PADT’s Lead Electromagnetics Engineer Michael Griesi for a look at what new capabilities are available for HFSS users in ANSYS 2019 R2.

This presentation will include updates for the following topics:

  • Solve speed
  • Electronics Desktop
  • ANSYS Cloud
  • Post processing
  • And much more

Register Here

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Press Release: PADT Awarded U.S. Army Phase I SBIR Grant for Combustor Geometry Research Using 3D Printing, Simulation, and Product Development

We are pleased to announce that the US Army has awarded PADT a Phase I SBIR Grant to explore novel geometries for combustor cooling holes. This is our 15th SBIR/STTR win.

We are excited about this win because it is a project that combines Additive Manufacturing, CFD and Thermal Simulation, and Design in one project. And to make it even better, the work is being done in conjunction with our largest customer, Honeywell Aerospace.

We look forward to getting started on this first phase where we will explore options and then applying for a larger Phase II grant to conduct more thorough simulation then build and test the options we uncover in this phase.

Read more below. The official press release is here for HTML and here for PDF.

If you have any needs to explore new solutions or new geometries using Additive Manufacturing or applying advanced simulation to drive new and unique designs, please contact us at 480.813.4884 or info@padtinc.com.


PADT Awarded U.S. Army Phase I SBIR Grant for Combustor Geometry Research Using 3D Printing, Simulation, and Product Development

The Project Involves the Development of Sand-Plugging Resistant Metallic Combustor Liners

TEMPE, Ariz., August 15, 2019 ─ In recognition of its continued excellence and expertise in 3D printing, simulation, and product development, PADT announced today it has been awarded a $107,750 U.S. Army Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant. With the support of Honeywell Aerospace, PADT’s research will focus on the development of gas turbine engine combustor liners that are resistant to being clogged with sand.  The purpose of this research is to reduce downtime and improve the readiness of the U.S. Army’s critical helicopters operating in remote locations where dirt and sand can enter their engines.  

“PADT has supported advanced research in a wide variety of fields which have centered around various applications of our services,” said Eric Miller, co-founder and principal, PADT. “We’re especially proud of this award because it requires the use of our three main areas of expertise, 3D printing, simulation and product development. Our team is uniquely capable of combining these three disciplines to develop a novel solution to a problem that impacts the readiness of our armed forces.”

The challenge PADT will be solving is when helicopters are exposed to environments with high concentrations of dust, they can accumulate micro-particles in the engine that clog the metal liner of the engine’s combustor. Combustors are where fuel is burned to produce heat that powers the gas turbine engine. To cool the combustor, thousands of small holes are drilled in the wall, or liner, and cooling air is forced through them. If these holes become blocked, the combustor overheats and can be damaged.  Blockage can only be remedied by taking the engine apart to replace the combustor. These repairs cause long-term downtime and significantly reduce readiness of the Army’s fleets.

PADT will design various cooling hole geometries and simulate how susceptible they are to clogging using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tools. Once the most-promising designs have been identified through simulation, sample coupons will be metal 3D printed and sent to a test facility to verify their effectiveness.  Additionally, PADT will experiment with ceramic coating processes on the test coupons to determine the best way to thermally protect the 3D printed geometries.

“When we developed new shapes for holes in the past, we had no way to make them using traditional manufacturing,” said Sina Ghods, principal investigator, PADT. “The application of metal additive manufacturing gives PADT an opportunity to create shapes we could never consider to solve a complex challenge for the U.S. Army. It also gives us a chance to demonstrate the innovation and growth of the 3D printing industry and its applications for harsh, real-world environments.”

Honeywell joined PADT to support this research because it is well aligned with the company’s Gas Turbine Engine products. The outcome of this research has the potential to significantly improve the performance of the company’s engines operating in regions with high dust concentrations.

This will be PADT’s 15th SBIR/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) award since the company was founded in 1994. In August 2018, the company, in partnership with Arizona State University, was awarded a $127,000 STTR Phase I Grant from NASA to accelerate biomimicry research, the study of 3D printing objects that resemble strong and light structures found in nature such as honeycombs or bamboo.

To learn more about PADT and its advanced capabilities, please visit www.padtinc.com.

About Phoenix Analysis and Design Technologies

Phoenix Analysis and Design Technologies, Inc. (PADT) is an engineering product and services company that focuses on helping customers who develop physical products by providing Numerical Simulation, Product Development, and 3D Printing solutions. PADT’s worldwide reputation for technical excellence and experienced staff is based on its proven record of building long-term win-win partnerships with vendors and customers. Since its establishment in 1994, companies have relied on PADT because “We Make Innovation Work.” With over 80 employees, PADT services customers from its headquarters at the Arizona State University Research Park in Tempe, Arizona, and from offices in Torrance, California, Littleton, Colorado, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Austin, Texas, and Murray, Utah, as well as through staff members located around the country. More information on PADT can be found at www.PADTINC.com.

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