## Real-Time Plotting in Flownex

Today’s tech tip will be short and sweet. We’re going to go over how to do a real-time plot in Flownex. In this example we’re using Flownex version 8.12.7.4334

## Adding a Time Dependent Graph

For a time dependent graph we will choose the Line Graph under the Visualization library on the Components pane. We can drag and drop the variables we’d like to see plotted here. I’m going to look at the pump speed (rpm), the valve fraction open, and the mass flow through our network.

On the graph properties we’ll likely want multiple Y-axis enabled so that the changes are easily seen as a function of time.

## Real-Time Transient

To have our transient analysis solve in real-time we will need to go to the Solver Ribbon and click on Scheduler to access our transient settings. Here we can change the Running Speed to “Realtime”.

Now when we run our analysis we will get real-time response! This comes in super handy when building human machine interfaces in Flownex for testing operations, when we want to observe response of controls systems, or observing start-up/shut-down type scenarios.

## Ansys Motor CAD Modeling Damper Bars

PADT’s Kang Li shows how to add Damper Bars to an Electric Motor in Ansys Motor-CAD. This step-by-step video is a tutorial on that process as well as a fantastic look at how Ansys Motor-CAD works.

## Parameter Sheet Tricks

It’s Friday and time for the 13th Tech tip! Today we are going to go over some simple parameter sheet tricks and best practices. Parameter sheets are incredibly useful for running many different design or operation analyses. Let’s go over how best to utilize their functionality. In this example we’re working in Flownex version 8.12.7.4334

## Parameter Sheet Setup

Probably the most critical thing to know when working with Parameter Sheets in Flownex is to make our edits through the setup interface. This is where we define the connection between Flownex and the worksheet.

As we recall, adding either inputs or results to our parameter sheet is as simple as dragging and dropping them into the different columns.

## Renaming Parameter Columns

We may find that we’d like a more descriptive name of an input or result parameter than simply
“Pressure” or “Temperature”. We can rename the columns and this must be done via the parameter table setup. If we were to change the name in the worksheet it will be overwritten by the setup when the model is solved.

## Rearranging Parameters

We may decide after creating a parameter table that we need to go back in and add a new column between existing input or result parameters. This should be done, again, through the setup. We will add our new parameter to the first open column and then move it within the setup.

*Important Note: Cell references in Excel are explicit in parameter sheets. If we are performing calculations in the parameter sheet using cell references and we rearrange columns these formulas will need to be updated.

## Discovery Updates in Ansys 2021 R2 – Webinar

Ansys 2021 R2 continues to expand simulation capabilities and ease of use for every engineer to unlock innovation and increase productivity throughout the product development process. ​​In addition, every analyst can now benefit from Ansys Discovery’s geometry modeling workflows, groundbreaking Discovery Live physics and innovative user interface.

Join PADT’s design engineering expert Robert McCathren for a look at what Ansys 2021 R2 brings to the 3D Design family of products. This includes enhancements such as:

• More engineering use cases
• Ansys Workbench connectivity
• Connected geometry workflow
• Workflow innovation
• And much more
Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

## Ansys Maxwell Loss Calculations in a Magnetic Gear

In this video, PADT’s Kang Li shows how to carry out loss calculations from permanent magnets and the core materials.

## All Things Ansys 093: Introducing Ansys 2021 R2

 Published on: July 26th, 2021 With: Eric Miller, Tom Chadwick, Aleksandr Gafarov, Joe Woodward, Ted Harris, Sina Ghods, & Josh Stout Description: In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by members of the simulation support team to explore Ansys 2021 R2 and discuss their favorite features so far. Ansys multiphysics software solutions and digital mission engineering help companies innovate and validate like never before. Ansys gives engineers the power to see how their ideas will perform against millions of variables. Ansys 2021 R2 delivers significant improvements in simulation technology together with nearly unlimited computing power to help engineers across all industries reimagine product design and achieve product development goals that were previously thought impossible. If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you! Listen: Subscribe:

@ANSYS #ANSYS

## Sizing Pumps and Manually Specifying a Pump Curve in Flownex

As a System Engineer you may not always already have equipment decided on for your particular network. Flownex makes it easy to start from scratch and will help determine the equipment necessary to meet the flow or process requirements. In today’s tip we’ll go over how to size a pump using the basic centrifugal pump component and how to manually enter pump curve data. We are using Flownex version 8.12.7.4334

## Sizing a Pump

In our example scenario let us pretend we are sizing a pump for a cooling water circuit. We are tasked with finding a pump which will deliver water at a rate of 1 kg/s to the heat exchanger. We know our upstream and downstream boundary conditions as well as the heat added at the exchanger and the speed at which we will be operating the pump.

### Choose the appropriate flow component

There are a few different pumps available in Flownex:

Basic Centrifugal Pump: Used when we do not have a pump chart available, particularly useful when sizing a pump.

Fan or Pump: Used when a pump chart is available for modeling either compressible or incompressible flows.

Positive Displacement Pump: Used for modeling rotary and reciprocating pumps where the fluid is incompressible, non-Newtonian, or a slurry.

Variable Speed Pump: Similar to the Fan or Pump but with the ability to interpolate between fan/pump curves for different speeds of rotation.

In this case we’d choose the Basic Centrifugal Pump. This is found in the component pane under Turbos and Pumps. Since we only know the RPM we can enter it in the inputs under Speed at BEP:

Recall we don’t know what the design of the pump will be. Since all we know is that the mass flow rate needs to be 1 kg/s we will check the box for fixed mass flow and then select to change design to target our desired flowrate.

Once we hit solve our pump design inputs will be populated such that our desired mass flow rate is achieved. We can cross-reference these values with available pumps to choose the appropriate component for our network!

## Specifying a Pump Curve

If we already know which pump we are using, or perhaps are trying to decide between several available pumps, we may need to add these pump curves to Flownex. To add a pump curve we will navigate to the Charts and Lookup Tables pane > Project Database > Flow Solver > Turbos and Pumps. In this scenario we are looking at a single speed pump so we will right-click on Pump and Fan Charts and Add a Category.

We can name our category whatever is appropriate and then right-click on the newly created category to add our own pump chart.

To edit the newly created pump chart we can either double-click on it or right-click and select edit. Now we simply specify the Reference Density and then fill out the table with the relevant data points. To speed things along we can copy and paste a table of data points from excel or whatever source we get this curve from. Don’t forget to check your units!

## Girl Gang Garage: Custom Car Rebuilds + 3D Scanning + 3D Printing

What do you get when you cross a 1961 Volvo PV544 retro-look car with a sleek 2019 Volvo S60 T8 Polestar Engineered sedan – and why would you ever do that?

You get a custom head-turner hybrid vehicle designed to get people talking, especially about women in automotive trades. That’s because this blended vehicle project is being disassembled, redesigned and rebuilt by an all-female team based at Girl Gang Garage in Phoenix Arizona.

Girl Gang Garage founder and co-owner, Bogi Lateiner, TV host of Motortrend’s All Girls Garage and Garage Squad shows, is well on the way to transforming these vehicles as the third major public project she has undertaken. Along with co-owner Shawnda Williams, Lateiner offers women of all ages, experiences and skill levels the chance to lend a hand, learn a tool, and possibly discover a new career-path in the automotive trades.

Lateiner and Williams apply well-honed old-school skills but have been increasingly interested in the possibilities offered by today’s digital workflow. That’s why early in 2021, after conversations with the fellow re-build team at Kindig-It Custom Car Fabrication, Lateiner reached out to Stratasys to see how they might work together to incorporate 3D printing in the PV544 project.

At Stratasys, Pat Carey, Senior Vice President Americas Products & Solutions, and Allen Kreemer, Senior Strategic Applications Engineer, were immediately onboard with the chance to help Girl Gang Garage move into the digital world while widening their circle of women with automotive skills and interests. They loaned the team an F370 FDM 3D printer and accompanying support-removal SCA tank and offered to supply filament material for a two year try-whatever-you-want time period. Moreover, they pulled together a volunteer team of women across the country who could support the effort on multiple fronts.

A Virtual Team and a Digital Workflow

The team includes engineers whose day-time jobs have them working at Stratasys, Link3D, Autodesk, Xerox, Collins Aerospace and Ford Motor Company or as independent consultants. Printer installation and local support is handled by PADT Inc, a Stratasys reseller and 3D printing/design/simulation company located just 16 miles away from Girl Gang Garage. In addition, members of Women in 3D Printing offered to coordinate many of the publicity efforts and even sponsor a related design competition targeted at young women in high schools and colleges who are learning CAD skills. (More on that to come.)

During the first few Zoom meetings that introduced Lateiner and Williams to the technical capabilities of the different team members and the printer, the basic rebuild plan was presented: strip the PV544 down to bare metal (removing every mechanical and electrical component), disassemble the S60 down to the chassis, engine, drive-train and hybrid motor system, and figure out how to make the two sections fit!

Traditionally, that workflow depended strictly on the classic tools of the trade, from cutting wheels and a Sawzall to hand-grinders and pneumatic drills. Those components are still coming into play on the current project under the skilled eye of the Girl Gang Garage leaders, but now complementary digital processes are being added.

It Starts with Scanning

PADT recently became a reseller of GOM 3D scanning hardware and software tools, and the timing was perfect to bring the new handheld Tscan Hawk system on-site. Operating with both red-line and blue-line (different wavelength) laser scanners plus stereo cameras, the Tscan Hawk captures millions of spatial 3D-point-coordinates (termed clouds of data) which are converted into a standard STL mesh file format for several end-purposes. The red lasers generate measurements across medium to large surfaces while the blue-wavelength sensors capture fine detail, with accuracy down to 20 microns.

GOM Inspect software records reference points, captures the individual coordinate data and allows interrogation of that data to provide dimensions, such as the distance between the engine frame mounts or the diameter of the hole into which the headlamp fits.

These three images show a) the reference-point data that appears on the laptop screen as the shape of the PV544 vehicle’s underside is captured, b) the completed scan showing the 3D details of the as-built sheet metal and c) a report page from GOM Inspect software with dozens of dimensions extracted from the scan, such as the length of the trunk opening and the width of the opening available for the engine mount. The scan data, if exported as an STL file, could be sent directly to a 3D printer – though for this project the team is not printing the full body. Instead, subsets of the scan are being used for reverse engineering, where the data works as the basis for creative design elements to be printed and perhaps painted or plated.

To do so, the scanned data is be brought into a surfacing package such as Geomagic Design X or Innovmetric PolyWorks. Those software tools let users convert the STL mesh into an IGES surface, which can then be brought into a CAD package as the basis for a new solid model.

Not for the real build but as a fun example, here is a possible headlight-rim with the letters “Girl Gang Garage” cut out as a circular repeat pattern, that could be backlit with LEDS to customize the build. The design and dimensions are based on the maximum inscribed circle fitted by the GOM Inspect software inside the given opening. (In future blog posts, we’ll show examples of the CAD team’s actual 3D printing results.)

Scanning has many other purposes and capabilities. If CAD data were available for the actual vehicle, those files could be imported, overlaid on the captured data, and compared, alerting the user to deviations between intended and actual dimensions – a very common use of GOM Inspect software.

Next Steps

Every Thursday through Sunday, volunteer women come to Girl Gang Garage and learn to use cutting tools, welders, sanders and more, making daily progress toward the completed hybrid PV544. (All women are invited to come help and learn, at no cost – just sign up to get involved and get yourself to Phoenix.) Here are a few glimpses into the work as of early April – much more has been done but stay tuned for the next blog post as we show off elements of the S60 sedan, scan data being used for reference, and details of the design contest.

## ANSYS Maxwell: Building a Magnetic Gear Model

In this video, PADT’s Kang Li steps users through the process of building and running a magnetic gear from scratch in Ansys Maxwell. The model shows both standard magnets and a Halbach array.

## How to use Flow Path Graphs and Increment Plots in Flownex

Flow Path Graphs and Increment Plots can be incredibly useful visualization tools to see how a simulation result varies as a function of length along the axial flow path and to see a higher fidelity result for a single flow component. Use these in Flownex to up your reporting game! In this demo we are using Flownex version 8.12.7.4334

## Creating a Flow Path

A flow path is any continuous series of flow elements and can be created by clicking “Flow Paths” in the results ribbon. Once we’ve created our new flow path we define it by choosing our start and end nodes.

Another, simpler, method is to simply drag and drop the nodes onto the flow path start and end point:

If we have a branched network we can add an intermediate node or flow component to our flow path to ensure the correct path is captured in the graph:

## Insert a Flow Path Graph

The Flow Path Graph is in the component pane under visualization > graphs. Once the graph is added to the canvas we simply need to drag and drop our newly created flow path onto the graph and choose the characteristic we are interested in plotting. We will need to drag and drop the flow path for each characteristic we would like plotted.

## How to create Increment Plots

You may have noticed in the previous images that there were many data points on the graphs for each of our flow components. This is because we had each pipe modeled as 25 increments. When we add increments to our flow components Flownex will treat each component as if it were split up that number of increments – solving the conservation equations for each increment rather than once over the entire component. This is helpful when modeling long pipes, capturing pressure waves, or determining exactly where a phase change may happen. A good way to think about this is that it is essentially the same as refining a mesh in a typical finite element analysis.

There is another plot in Flownex we can use for a single flow component that has been incremented. The increment plot is located in the components pane under Visualization > Graphs > Increment Plots. If we were, for example, trying to plot the inside surface temperature of our first pipe in this example network we could use an increment plot to see what is going on.

To create an increment plot we simply drag and drop the plot onto the canvas. We can either selectively drag results from individual increments or multi-select many increments and drag the desired variable onto the graph. Note that since there is a tie of each increment parameter separately there may be some delay if we are multiselecting a very large number of increments.

## Bonus Tips!

• We can use a Flow Path graph for a single component to avoid having to multi-select increments.
• To create a graph on its own page instead of floating on the canvas go to the Project Explorer pane on the left side of the GUI, select Graphs, then right-click on the Graphs Folder and select Add Graph Page and choose your desired type of plot.

## Three Dimensions of Time: A new, 3D Printed Clock Highlighting PADT’s Additive Capabilities

Tracking time has challenged the human race for centuries, resulting in some of the finest mechanisms ever crafted. From sundials and hourglasses to pocket watches and atomic clocks, we have marked the passage of time with ever-increasing precision. Along the way, we became supremely skilled at creating the requisite gears and springs, as well as the machines to produce them. (If you have a deeper interest in measuring time, one must-read book is Longitude by Dava Sobel.)

This post, however, is about taking clock-making to a new dimension – three dimensions, in fact, using multiple 3D printers to generate not only the gears and structural components but even the watch-spring and winding-key, based on a mechanism called a Tourbillon. Invented around 1800 by Abraham-Louis Breguet, the Tourbillon concept compensates for the effects of gravity on delicate watch-springs when the watch is carried or laid down (varying its orientations), by employing multiple axes.

An excellent write-up on this concept is on MyMiniFactory, which is also where you’ll find the fascinating design of a 3D-printable Tourbillon clock from a designer called Mechanistic. Check out this mesmerizing video of the clock in action. Mechanistic has previously done other awesome designs and this past Spring did a crowd-funding effort to support printing all the components on a hobby-type 3D printer.

Depending on one’s donation amount, some or all of the intricate clock’s CAD files are downloadable. Recently Justin Baxter, PADT’s senior 3D Printing Service Engineer (with years of hobbyist clock-making under his belt), set out to reproduce the device with a twist. Why not take advantage of all the additive manufacturing systems in use by PADT’s Manufacturing Division, and print at least one component on each?

This approach spans the AM technologies of Fused Deposition Modeling (Stratasys FDM material extrusion), PolyJet (Stratasys material deposition), selective laser sintering (3D Systems SLS polymer powder bed fusion), direct metal laser sintering (EOS DMLS metal powder bed fusion), stereolithography (3D Systems and UnionTech vat SLA photopolymerization) and digital light processing (Stratasys Origin One DLP vat photopolymerization).

The Triple-Axis Tourbillon Mechanical Clock Design

Not all of the clock’s 230 components are 3D printed – metal screws, pins and ball bearings round out the assembly – but Justin is slowly printing all other parts spread across colors, materials and AM technologies. For starters, he has recreated the central first-axis mechanism called the Mini Mechanica; this subset serves well for new users to test out their own systems and parameters ensuring effective dimensional tolerances. The Mini Mechanica part files are also available as a separate free download.

Justin’s Mini Mechanica includes the following parts made of ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene), each 3D printed on one of our two Stratasys F370 FDM systems:

When finished, here is how that subset will fit into the completed three-axis clock:

Note: the fully printed clock operates on a 90 minute run-time if a steel spring is employed, and 20 minute run time with a 3D printed (FDM) version. (We’ve seen suggestions for adding a battery.)

For more details on the Triple Axis clock, see the conveniently provided assembly guide: (2) How to build a 3D Printed Triple Axis Tourbillon | Assembly Guide – YouTube.

As the part-builds progress across our other printers and materials, we’ll post an update. Here are a few more components in progress, including the decorative base on the left, which was printed in Nylon 12GS on our SLS powder-bed printer.

PADT Inc. is a globally recognized provider of Numerical Simulation, Product Development and 3D Printing products and services. For more information on Stratasys polymer printers and materials and EOS metal printers, contact us at info@padtinc.com.

## An Ansys Licensing Tip – ANSYSLMD_LICENSE_FILE

Most Ansys users make use of floating licensing setups, and I would say the majority of those actually make use of licenses that are hosted nonlocally but on their network. Within this licensing scheme, there are quite a few different tools and utilities that we can use to specify where we pull our licenses, too. One of the methods that is making a comeback (in my recent experience) as far as success in troubleshooting and overall reliability is specifying the environment variable ANSYSLMD_LICENSE_FILE.

This variable allows you to point directly towards one or more license servers using a port@address definition for the FlexNet port. With just this defined, the interconnect port will default to 2325, but if your server setup requires another interconnect port then you can also specify this using the ANSYSLI_SERVERS environment variable with the same format.

The downside is that this is a completely separate license server specification from the typical ansyslmd.ini approach, so any values specified this way will not be visible in the “Ansys Client License Settings” utility. On the upside, this is a completely separate license server specification! Meaning, if there are permission issues associated with ansyslmd.ini, or the other license utilities experienced some unknown errors on installation, this may be able to circumvent those issues entirely.

Also, for more advanced setups this can be used to assign specific license servers to individual users on a machine or to potentially help with controlling the priority of license access if multiple license servers are present. Anyway, this may be worth looking into if you encounter issues with client-side licensing!

## Mechanical Updates in Ansys 2021 R2: External Models, Composites & Meshing – Webinar

Ansys Mechanical delivers features to enable faster simulations, easier workflows, journaling, scripting and product integrations that offer more solver capabilities.

With the Ansys suite of tools, engineers can perform finite element analyses (FEA), customize and automate solutions for structural mechanics challenges and analyze multiple design scenarios. By using this software early in the design cycle, businesses can save costs, reduce the number of design cycles and bring products to market faster.

Join PADT’s Lead mechanical engineer Doug Oatis to discover the new features that have been added to Ansys Mechanical in the first webinar covering the 2021 R2 release.

Highlights include unlimited modeling possibilities with journaling and scripting in the Mechanical interface and increased meshing efficiency and quality for shell meshing, among many others.

Register Here

If this is your first time registering for one of our Bright Talk webinars, simply click the link and fill out the attached form. We promise that the information you provide will only be shared with those promoting the event (PADT).

You will only have to do this once! For all future webinars, you can simply click the link, add the reminder to your calendar and you’re good to go!

## All Things Ansys 092: Recap of Ansys 2021 R1 & Beyond

 Published on: July 12th, 2021 With: Eric Miller, Tom Chadwick, Aleksandr Gafarov, Joe Woodward, Ted Harris, Doug Oatis & Josh Stout Description: In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by members of the simulation support team to recap Ansys 2021 R1 and discuss expectations and predictions for 2021 R2. If you have any questions, comments, or would like to suggest a topic for the next episode, shoot us an email at podcast@padtinc.com we would love to hear from you! Listen: Subscribe:

@ANSYS #ANSYS