Defining Antenna Array Excitations with Nested-If Statements in HFSS

HFSS offers various methods to define array excitations. For a large array, you may take advantage of an option “Load from File” to load the magnitude and phase of each port. However, in many situations you may have specific cases of array excitation. For example, changing amplitude tapering or the phase variations that happens due to frequency change. In this blog we will look at using the “Edit Sources” method to change the magnitude and phase of each excitation. There are cases that might not be easily automated using a parametric sweep. If the array is relatively small and there are not many individual cases to examine you may set up the cases using “array parameters” and “nested-if”.

In the following example, I used nested-if statements to parameterize the excitations of the pre-built example “planar_flare_dipole_array”, which can be found by choosing File->Open Examples->HFSS->Antennas (Fig. 1) so you can follow along. The file was then saved as “planar_flare_dipole_array_if”. Then one project was copied to create two examples (Phase Variations, Amplitude Variations).

Fig. 1. Planar_flare_dipole_array with 5 antenna elements (HFSS pre-built example).

Phase Variation for Selected Frequencies

In this example, I assumed there were three different frequencies that each had a set of coefficients for the phase shift. Therefore, three array parameters were created. Each array parameter has 5 elements, because the array has 5 excitations:

A1: [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]

A2: [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

A3: [0, 2, 4, 6, 8]

Then 5 coefficients were created using a nested_if statement. “Freq” is one of built-in HFSS variables that refers to frequency. The simulation was setup for a discrete sweep of 3 frequencies (1.8, 1.9 and 2.0 GHz) (Fig. 2). The coefficients were defined as (Fig. 3):

E1: if(Freq==1.8GHz,A1[0],if(Freq==1.9GHz,A2[0],if(Freq==2.0GHz,A3[0],0)))

E2: if(Freq==1.8GHz,A1[1],if(Freq==1.9GHz,A2[1],if(Freq==2.0GHz,A3[1],0)))

E3: if(Freq==1.8GHz,A1[2],if(Freq==1.9GHz,A2[2],if(Freq==2.0GHz,A3[2],0)))

E4: if(Freq==1.8GHz,A1[3],if(Freq==1.9GHz,A2[3],if(Freq==2.0GHz,A3[3],0)))

E5: if(Freq==1.8GHz,A1[4],if(Freq==1.9GHz,A2[4],if(Freq==2.0GHz,A3[4],0)))

Please note that the last case is the default, so if frequency is none of the three frequencies that were given in the nested-if, the default phase coefficient is chosen (“0” in this case).

Fig. 2. Analysis Setup.

Fig. 3. Parameters definition for phase varaitioin case.

By selecting the menu item HFSS ->Fields->Edit Sources, I defined E1-E5 as coefficients for the phase shift. Note that phase_shift is a variable defined to control the phase, and E1-E5 are meant to be coefficients (Fig. 4):

Fig. 4. Edit sources using the defined variables.

The radiation pattern can now be plotted at each frequency for the phase shifts that were defined (A1 for 1.8 GHz, A2 for 1.9 GHz and A3 for 2.0 GHz) (Figs 5-6):

 Fig. 5. Settings for radiation pattern plots.

Fig. 6. Radiation patten for phi=90 degrees and different frequencies, the variation of phase shifts shows how the main beam has shifted for each frequency.

Amplitude Variation for Selected Cases

In the second example I created three cases that were controlled using the variable “CN”. CN is simply the case number with no units.

The variable definition was similar to the first case. I defined 3 array parameters and 5 coefficients. This time the coefficients were used for the Magnitude. The variable in the nested-if was CN. That means 3 cases and a default case were created. The default coefficient here was chosen as “1” (Figs. 7-8).

A1: [1, 1.5, 2, 1.5, 1]

A2: [1, 1, 1, 1, 1]

A3: [2, 1, 0, 1, 2]

E1: if(CN==1,A1[0],if(CN==2,A2[0],if(CN==3,A3[0],1)))*1W

E2: if(CN==1,A1[1],if(CN==2,A2[1],if(CN==3,A3[1],1)))*1W

E3: if(CN==1,A1[2],if(CN==2,A2[2],if(CN==3,A3[2],1)))*1W

E4: if(CN==1,A1[3],if(CN==2,A2[3],if(CN==3,A3[3],1)))*1W

E5: if(CN==1,A1[4],if(CN==2,A2[4],if(CN==3,A3[4],1)))*1W

Fig. 7. Parameters definition for amplitude varaitioin case.

Fig. 8. Exciation setting for amplitude variation case.

Notice that CN in the parametric definition has the value of “1”. To create the solution for all three cases I used a parametric sweep definition by selecting the menu item Optimetrics->Add->Parametric. In the Add/Edit Sweep I chose the variable “CN”, Start: 1, Stop:3, Step:1. Also, in the Options tab I chose to “Save Fields and Mesh” and “Copy geometrically equivalent meshes”, and “Solve with copied meshes only”. This selection helps not to redo the adaptive meshing as the geometry is not changed (Fig. 9). In plotting the patterns I could now choose the parameter CN and the results of plotting for CN=1, 2, and 3 is shown in Fig. 10. You can see how the tapering of amplitude has affected the side lobe level.

Fig. 9. Parameters definition for amplitude varaitioin case.

 Fig. 10. Radiation patten for phi=90 degrees and different cases of amplitude tapering, the variation of amplitude tapering has caused chagne in the beamwidth and side lobe levels.

Drawback

The drawback of this method is that array parameters are not post-processing variables. This means changing them will create the need to re-run the simulations. Therefore, it is needed that all the possible cases to be defined before running the simulation.

If you would like more information or have any questions please reach out to us at info@padtinc.com.

All Thing ANSYS 050: Updates and Enhancements in ANSYS Mechanical 2019 R3

 

Published on: November 4th, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Joe Woodward, & Ted Harris
Description:  

In this episode, your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s Specialist Mechanical Engineer/Lead Trainer Joe Woodward, and Simulation Support Manager Ted Harris, for a discussion on what’s new in the mechanical release for ANSYS 2019 R3, as well as a look at their favorite features. This includes a focus on updates and enhancements to improve ease of use, reduce set-up time, and provide more valuable solutions.

If you would like to learn more about what this release is capable of, check out our webinar on the topic here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/376304

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Updates & Additions in ANSYS Mechanical 2019 R3 – Webinar

With ANSYS structural analysis software, users are able to solve more complex engineering problems, faster and more efficiently than ever before. Customization and automation of structural solutions is much easier to optimize thanks to new and innovative finite element analysis (FEA) tools available in this product suite. 

From designers and occasional users looking for quick, easy and accurate results, to experts looking to model complex materials, large assemblies and nonlinear behavior, ANSYS has you covered. The intuitive interface of ANSYS Mechanical enables engineers of all levels to get answers fast and with confidence.

Join PADT’s Specialist Mechanical Engineer Joe Woodward, for an in-depth look at what’s new in the latest version of ANSYS Mechanical, including updates regarding:

  • Software User Interface
  • Design Elements
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Predicting & Controlling Environmental Pollution with ANSYS Simulation – Webinar

Environmental pollution has been a fact of life for many centuries, though it became a real issue after the start of the industrial revolution. An estimated 6.5 million premature deaths have been linked to air pollution every year.

In order to properly combat this growing issue, the world’s leading minds have turned to a more effective tool for environmental analysis; numerical simulation. Computational fluid dynamics has proven to be a powerful tool when it comes to predicting and controlling air, water, and noise pollution. Saab Bio Power can guide you more to measure and control pollution.

Join PADT’s CFD Team Lead Engineer Clinton Smith to learn how ANSYS fluid mechanics solutions provide insight and detailed understanding of the formation and dispersion of pollutants such as NOx, SOx, CO & Soot as well as effective ways for modelling pollution control equipment such as ESP’s, bag filters, and wastewater treatment plants.

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All Things ANSYS 047: Mechanical Solver, Element, & Contact Enhancements in ANSYS 2019 R3

 

Published on: September 24th, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Joe Woodward, Doug Oatis, & Ted Harris
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In this episode, your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s simulation support manager Ted Harris, specialist mechanical engineer Joe Woodward, and simulation support & application engineer Doug Oatis for a discussion on what is new in ANSYS 2019 R3 with regards to the mechanical solver, element, and contact enhancements.

If you would like to learn more about what’s new in this latest mechanical release, check out our webinar on the topic here: https://www.brighttalk.com/webcast/15747/371263

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Fluids Innovations in ANSYS 2019 R3 – Webinar

Products such as ANSYS Fluent, CFX, and Ensight work together in a constantly improving tool kit that is developed to provide ease of use improvements for engineers simulating fluid flows and the impact those flows have on physical models. 

Fluids simulation users will find that ANSYS 2019 R3 includes many enhancements that further simplify the user experience and broaden use to new applications. The new Fluent experience has been improved so you can enjoy more CFD in less time, with less training.

Join PADT’s Simulation Support and Application Engineer, Sina Ghods, for a look at what is new and improved for fluids simulation tools in ANSYS 2019 R3. This presentation includes updates regarding: 

  • Usability Enhancements
  • Watertight Geometry Workflow
  • TurboGrid & BladeEditor
  • Meshing Enhancements
  • And many more innovative capabilities

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High Frequency Electromagnetic Updates in ANSYS 2019 R2 – Webinar

HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) employs versatile solvers and an intuitive GUI to provide unparalleled performance, as well as deep insight, into a wide variety of 3D electromagnetic (EM) problems. ANSYS HFSS is the premier EM tool for R&D and virtual design prototyping. It reduces design cycle time and boosts your product’s reliability and performance. 

The ANSYS HFSS simulation suite consists of a comprehensive set of solvers to address diverse electromagnetic problems, ranging in detail and scale from passive IC components to extremely large-scale EM analyses. Its reliable automatic adaptive mesh refinement allows users to focus on the design instead of spending time determining and creating the best mesh.

Join PADT’s Lead Electromagnetics Engineer Michael Griesi for a look at what new capabilities are available for HFSS users in ANSYS 2019 R2.

This presentation will include updates for the following topics:

  • Solve speed
  • Electronics Desktop
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All Things ANSYS 043: Optimize Materials Knowledge & Applications with ANSYS Granta pt. 1

 

Published on: August 12th, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Ward Rand, & John Perek
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In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by Ward Rand, one of PADT’s other Co-Founders, and John Perek, Principal Materials Engineer at Honeywell Aerospace to discuss the introduction of Granta to the ANSYS product line, its benefits for materials selection & analysis, and thoughts the Honeywell team has had since implementing it into their workflow.

If you would like to learn more about what’s available in this latest release check out PADT’s webinar on ANSYS Granta here: https://bit.ly/3001IFA

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All Things ANSYS 042: Mechanical Updates in ANSYS 2019 R2

 

Published on: July 30th, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Ted Harris, & Joe Woodward
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In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s Simulation Support Manager & Specialist Mechanical Engineer Joe Woodward to discuss the latest additions and improvements made for structural analysis in ANSYS Mechanical 2019 R2.

If you would like to learn more about what’s available in this latest release check out PADT’s webinar on Mechanical Updates Updates in ANSYS 2019 R2 here: https://bit.ly/2OuGmyP

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Mechanical Updates in ANSYS 2019 R2 – Webinar

With ANSYS structural analysis software, users are able to solve more complex engineering problems, faster and more efficiently than ever before. Customization and automation of structural solutions is much easier to optimize thanks to new and innovative finite element analysis (FEA) tools available in this product suite. 

Once again, ANSYS is able to cement their role as industry leaders when it comes to usability, productivity, and reliability; adding innovative functionality to an already groundbreaking product offering. ANSYS structural analysis software continues to be used throughout the industry, and for good reason as it enables engineers to optimize their product design and reduce the costs of physical testing. 

Join PADT’s Specialist Mechanical Engineer Joe Woodward, for an in-depth look at what’s new in the latest version of ANSYS Mechanical, including updates regarding: 

  • Software User Interface
  • Topology Optimization
  • Rigid Body Dynamics
  • Post Processing
  • And much more
Natural frequency study of engine block in ANSYS Mechanical

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Simulation for Additive Manufacturing In ANSYS 2019 R2 – Webinar

Additive manufacturing (3D Printing) has been rapidly gaining popularity as a true manufacturing process in recent years. ANSYS’ best-in-class solution for additive manufacturing enables simulation at every step in your AM process, and helps to optimize material configurations, and machine & parts setup before printing begins. 

Through the use of ANSYS tools such as Additive Suite & Additive Print, paired with topology optimization capabilities in ANSYS Mechanical Workbench, the need for physical process of trial-and-error testing has been greatly reduced. 

Join PADT’s Simulation Support and Application Engineer Doug Oatis for an exploration of the ANSYS tools that help to optimize additive manufacturing, and what new capabilities are available within them when upgrading to ANSYS 2019 R2. This presentation includes updates regarding:

  • Archiving materials no longer in use
  • Visualization of AM process
  • AM overhang angles
  • Preview part & support
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All Things ANSYS 040: Live From the 2019 ASME Turbo Expo – CFD Applications for Turbomachinery

 

Published on: July 1st, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Robin Steed of ANSYS, & Chris Robinson of PCA Engineers Limited
Description:  

In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by ANSYS CFX & Turbo Tools Lead Technical Product Manager Robin Steed, and Managing Director at PCA Engineers Limited, Chris Robinson, live at the 2019 ASME Turbo Expo in Phoenix Arizona, for a discussion on the past, present, and future of ANSYS CFD and its use in the realm of turbomachinery. Both Robin and Chris have multiple years of experience working in this industry, and their expertise provided some fascinating insight into what this tool is all about.

If you would like to learn more about what’s available in the latest CFD update check out PADT’s webinar on Fluids Updates in ANSYS 2019 R2 here: https://bit.ly/2J6l5We

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All Things ANSYS 039: Updates for Design Engineers in ANSYS 2019 R2

 

Published on: June 17th, 2019
With: Eric Miller, Ted Harris, & Tom Chadwick
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In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s Simulation Support Manager Ted Harris, and Senior CFD Engineer Tom Chadwick for a discussion on what new capabilities (beta or otherwise) are available for design engineers in the latest updates made to Discovery Live in ANSYS 2019 R2.

If you would like to learn more about this update and see the tool in action, along with others in the 3D Design family of products (Discovery AIM, SpaceClaim & Live) check out PADT’s webinar on the topic here: https://bit.ly/2KfO0tK

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3D Design Updates in ANSYS 2019 R2 – Webinar

When it comes to the exploration of rapid 3D design, simulation provides a more efficient and optimized workflow for design engineers looking to streamline product development and improve product performance. The toolkit of flagship ANSYS 3D design products made up of Discovery SpaceClaim, Discovery Live, and Discovery AIM allow users to build, and optimize lighter and smarter products with an interface easier to use than most other simulation products. 

Users can delve deeper into the details of a design with the same accuracy as other, more robust ANSYS tools, all while refining their concept and introducing multiple physics simulations to better account for real-world conditions.

Join PADT’s Simulation Support Manager Ted Harris, for a look at what’s new for this line of products with the release of ANSYS 2019 R2. Explore updates for these three tools including:

  • Shared Topology
  • Meshing
  • Navigation
  • Modal Supports 
  • Multi-physics Coupling
  • Topology Optimization 
  • And much more

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All Things ANSYS 038 – Simulating Multibody Dynamics More Accurately with ANSYS Motion

 

Published on: June 3rd, 2019
With: Eric Miller & Jim Peters
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In this episode your host and Co-Founder of PADT, Eric Miller is joined by PADT’s Senior Staff Technologist, Jim Peters for a discussion on the benefits of using ANSYS Motion to enable fast and accurate analysis of rigid and flexible bodies, and give accurate evaluation of physical events through the analysis of the mechanical system as a whole. ANSYS Motion uses four tightly integrated solving schemes: rigid body, flexible body, modal and mesh-free EasyFlex. This gives the user unparalleled capabilities to analyze systems and mechanisms in any desired combination.

If you would like to learn more about this update and see the tools in action, check out PADT’s webinar covering ANSYS Motion here: https://bit.ly/2MsRATh

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