My View: Self-driving car death a sad reminder of the importance of regulation

When someone loses their life, it is too late to start regulating a company’s behavior. The recent tragic death of a pedestrian in a collision with an Uber self-driving car showed that “Self-driving car death a sad reminder of the importance of regulation.” Florida medical malpractice lawyers are governed by certain laws that require them to establish with high credibility the fact that their client has a case to begin with. They must submit this in writing. If later findings reveal that there was no real and justifiable basis for a medical malpractice suit, the concerned lawyer becomes personally liable. Florida medical malpractice laws are very strict about possible defamation of the state’s medical practitioners. Florida medical malpractice lawyers choose their clients with extreme care, since the burden of investigation as well as a considerable portion of the initial financial outlay for a case falls on them. In Florida, a full-fledged medical malpractice suit can stretch over periods of two to three years, and a NYC Personal Injury Lawyers stands to collect significantly only on successful completion. Deciding whether a medical malpractice case is feasible or not is one of the most vital functions of lawyers in Florida. They have to decide whether the investment of money, time and effort is balanced out by possible returns. This calls for a high degree of oversight and experience, as well as an instinctive feel of the state’s legal ‘weather’. Another hurdle that Florida-based medical malpractice lawyers are often forced to overcome are the complex liens that govern damage settlements involving insurance-based medical care financiers such as Medicare and various Health Maintenance Organizations, or HMOs. Such organizations expect to be compensated for medical services that they have underwritten if these services have generated damages in a medical malpractice suit. Beauty Insurance By Professionals are in demand and widely subscribed by peoples. If a client fails to do this, he may be slapped with a criminal case. Nоw days еvеrуоnе hаvе thеіr оwn vehicle, roads аrе jam pack wіth vehicles, thе risk іѕ high ѕо аѕ a result, motor insurance companies аrе growing day bу day аnd claims hаvе аlѕо gone uр. But mаnу a tіmе, thе policyholders dо nоt know exactly whаt thеу саn dо tо gеt thеіr car accident insurance claim procedure.

Never argue with the police officer at the time of the traffic stop; stay polite and keep a low profile. And this is not just a requirement of general politeness – keep in mind that there will be cross examination of the police officer in court. The court session usually happens many weeks from the date the ticket was issued to you. Fewer memories you leave to police officer about yourself and speeding accident itself the more difficult it will be to police officer to win his case in the traffic court. Contesting a speeding ticket is indeed your right especially if you think it was issued wrongly or if you think you were not even speeding. Of course, you can always pay the fine. It won’t probably hurt to just pay it but if you have enough reasons to contest it, your efforts can be worth it all, as a single ticket may stain your records with insurance companies. You can get redirected here for more about the Louisiana Speeding Ticket Lawyers.

In contesting a speeding ticket, you don’t have to be rude to the officer on the roadside. Always be polite. Ask politely for his proof of your violation, or if you need to argue, argue nicely. If you try to fight with the officer right there on the roadside, you may end up making the situation more difficult to get over with. Condition your mind to be nice and be very polite as always. Creating a scene would even make you more memorable to the officer and, for sure, you don’t want him to remember not to give you any favors.

A medical malpractice lawyer in Florida therefore walks a very thin line, and the legal fine-tuning itself can call upon unprecedented legal resources. In an interestingly peculiar twist of law, a claimant who wins a medical malpractice case in Florida without the aid of a lawyer will still find the net value of settlement reduced by an amount comparable to a lawyer’s fees. In other words, the claimant saves nothing if he fails to engage a lawyer’s services. When a client files a claim for malpractice, it is the medical malpractice attorney’s job to secure him or her damages for the pain and suffering which resulted from a doctor’s negligence. In cases of death, the attorney attempts to college damages for the family of the deceased. This can be a complicated procedure, as malpractice laws and regulations, particularly the statute of limitations, may vary from state to state. There are two types of damages available to victims of medical malpractice. A successful malpractice attorney may be able to secure the client both compensatory, as well as punitive, damages. Compensatory damages serve to financially compensate victims of medical malpractice for their own financial losses or damages that may have resulted from the incident. The client may be entitled to compensation for a whole host of medical bills both past and future, including hospitalization, surgery or therapy. The client may also be compensated for pain or suffering resulting from the malpractice. This might include any deformity or disfigurement, as well as physical or mental impairment. Punitive damages refer to money recovered to make an example of the doctor in question. These awards are not meant to compensate the victim, but more to punish the defendant and hopefully deter him or her (as well as the profession) from future misconduct. Punitive damages are more difficult to recover, as the malpractice attorney must prove obvious, reckless disregard for the safety of a patient. The doctor must have knowingly engaged in inappropriate dangerous behavior for punitive damages to be recovered. Medical malpractice attorneys must be aware of the specific medical malpractice “statute of limitations” governing the state in which the incident occurred, before addressing each malpractice case. The statute of limitations refers to the length of time one can legally wait before filing a claim for medical malpractice. These lengths vary from state to state so it is important for both the client and the malpractice attorney to be aware of their individual state laws governing medical malpractice. Oftentimes, in cases where malpractice attorneys are successful is producing compensatory and punitive damages for a client, malpractice payouts can reach into the millions or dollars, depending on how profound the suffering of the victim is determined to be. Obviously then it is in a victim’s best interest to procure a medical malpractice attorney who is well-versed in the malpractice laws of the state where he or she resides.

Since the feature is called, “My View” I shared my views on this topic in the Phoenix Business Journal. A little more editorial than my normal business/technology posts in the PBJ.

Installing a Metal 3D Printer: Part 4 (Environmental)

Download all 5 parts of this series as a single PDF here.

What waste streams are generated in powder-based metal 3D printing? Are they hazardous? How should they be disposed responsibly?

This is the fourth part of a 5-part series discussing things we learned installing a metal 3D printer (specifically, a laser powder bed fusion machine). If you haven’t already done so, please read the previous parts using the links below.

If you prefer, you can register for a webinar to be held on July 26 @ 2pm EDT (US) where I will be summarizing all 5 parts of this blog series. Register by clicking on the image below:

1. Sources of Waste

As shown in Figure 1 below, metal powder used in this process ends up in dry and wet waste. The dry waste can be composed of wipes and gloves with powder and soot, and the wet waste is mostly composed of water and suspended metal particles (from the wet separator and ultrasonic cleaner), and for reactive alloys, can also consist of filter cartridges that need to be suspended in water throughout. Because the wastes contain metal powders, we must stop and ask if this is safe for sending to our landfills and into our sewers where there is a risk of contaminating groundwater and creating other long term environmental havoc.

Thus, the first question is: are these wastes hazardous?

Fig 1. Powder Life Cycle

2. Is this Waste Hazardous?

There are two sources for this information: the EPA (in the US) and the powder supplier’s data sheets. It helps to begin by understanding some definitions – statements in italics are quoted from the EPA, the rest of the text is mine.

  • Waste: “A waste is any solid, liquid, or contained gaseous material that is discarded by being disposed of, burned or incinerated, or recycled
  • Hazardous Waste: There are several types of hazardous waste and associated definitions of each. The two main categories are:
    • Listed Waste: “Your waste is considered hazardous if it appears on one of four lists published in the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 261).” I have looked at this list and to the best of my knowledge, no metal powders of concern to the metal 3D printing process appear on this list (as of July 10, 2017). The metal powders currently used are also not considered acute hazards.
    • Characteristic Waste: In addition to listed wastes, the EPA specifies certain characteristics that a waste may possess (even if not listed) that would make it hazardous. In the context of metal powders, the potentially relevant categories are:
      • “It catches fire under certain conditions. This is known as an ignitable waste”.
      • “It is harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed, or it leaches toxic chemicals into the soil or ground water when disposed of on land. This is known as a toxic waste.”

Due to the generality of the definitions of “Characteristic Waste,” and the lack of available data in the public domain such as from a TCLP test (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), it is hard to dismiss these as not being relevant. For each of our waste streams, consider the arguments below:

  • Dry Waste: We know that given the right conditions and an ignition source, that these powders, especially reactive alloys and combustion products, can ignite.
  • Wet Waste: We also know that while water serves as a passivation for powders, we cannot guarantee that the powder will always stay in wet state if it is not disposed as such. Evaporation, for example, can leave behind combustible powder.

Another source of hazard information is the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) or Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Some metal powders are more hazardous than others, so when planning, consider looking at all the alloys you may possibly be using in the future and ask for SDS sheets on all of them. One example, is of Ti6Al4V powder below, clearly showing significant hazards present.

Fig 2. Sample hazards identification from SDS (shown here for Ti6Al4V)

3. What Regulations do I need to be aware of?

The EPA established three categories of waste generators in their regulations, listed below along with the relevant quantity of waste generated and stored, for our purposes (visit EPA’s site for the full list, this is not comprehensive) – EPA cites these numbers in hundreds and thousands of kilograms, hence the strange numbers below (in lbs):

Note this is the sum total of all hazardous wastes your site is generating (in our case, dry and wet wastes combined), not a limit per category. Depending on what category you fall in, you will need to follow EPA’s regulations, available here. Additionally, some states may have additional regulations and this is where I only have studied this problem for my home state of Arizona, which is in line with the EPA’s federal guidelines and does not, to the best of my knowledge, impose additional restrictions. The full list by state is here. If you are a “Very Small Quantity Generator” as we are at PADT, the regulations are fairly straightforward and involve three items (quoted from the EPA’s site) – the requirements are more stringent for larger quantities.

  • VSQGs must identify all the hazardous waste generated.
  • VSQGs may not accumulate more than 1,000 kilograms of hazardous waste at any time.
  • VSQGs must ensure that hazardous waste is delivered to a person or facility who is authorized to manage it.

At PADT, we contract with an industrial waste disposal company that picks up and replaces our waste containers. Yes, this adds cost to the process and at least one company has developed a method to significantly reduce wet waste (which tends to be the larger of the two) by employing a filtration device. Similar innovations and a general focus on reducing waste can drive these costs down.

4. Opinion

As with all regulations, one can approach them by focusing on the specificity of the language. While this is important, it is also useful to seek to understand the intent of the regulation. When it comes to these wastes, I ask if I would be comfortable carrying it in my car and disposing of it in my hypothetical backyard landfill (dry waste) or my local water body (wet waste) – and the answer to both, for me, is a NO. So why should I ask my city to do this? This is understandably an exaggerated way of looking at the problem, but I believe at a minimum, serves as a risk-conservative upper-bound that is useful when addressing uncertainty in these matters.

You can read the final installment of this series, on housekeeping, here.

5. References

  1. EPA, Hazardous Waste Generators Home Page
  2. EPA, Categories of Waste Generators
  3. EPA e-CFR, Title 40, Part 261
  4. US Environmental Agencies by state 

Disclaimers

  • This is intended to supplement the supplier training you must receive before using the equipment and not meant to replace it – in case of conflicting information, your supplier’s training and equipment requirements override any discussion here.
  • Local, state and federal regulations vary and are important – partner with your local environmental authorities when making decisions
  • My personal experience derives specifically from the use of Laser-based metal 3D printing tools, specifically Concept Laser’s MLab Cusing R equipment. I expect majority of this information to be of use to users of other laser based powder bed fusion metal systems and to a lesser extent to Electron Beam systems, but have no personal experience to vouch for this.
  • PADT and the author assume no legal responsibilities for any decisions or actions taken by the readers of this document or of subsequent information generated from it.

Phoenix Business Journal: Installing a metal 3-D printer was a lesson on working with regulators

While installing our new metal 3D Printer we learned a couple of important lessons on working with local inspectors.  In “Installing a metal 3-D printer was a lesson on working with regulators” we share what we captured.